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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 28 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL COGNITION ON UNDERSTANDING FRIENDSHIP IN 7-5 YEAR-OLD CHILDREN
    Fang Fuxi, Fang Ge, Wang Wenzhong (Institute of psychology,Academia Sinica,Beijing)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 1-8.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 116 )
    Children aged 7 to l5 were individually interviewed by the dilemma story of promise-keeping for investigating children's development of understanding of friendship. The results showed:1.The understanding of friendship was conditioned by the abilities of differentiating and intergrating oneselfs and other's social perspectives and development of the moral norms such as altruism and promise keeping. In the view of the structural development a scoring manual was developed. Four levels were identified in the children aged 7 to 15: Material orientation level(Level 0); Prenormal level(Level 1); Normal level(Level 2) and conceptualized level(Level 3). There were also some transitional levels between two levels designated to level 0/1,1/2 and 2/3,Most 7 year olds were in level 1 or 1/2; most 9-year-olds in level 1/2 or 2; most 12-year-olds in level 2 or2/3; most 15-year-olds in level 2/3 or 3.2. The qualities of formal schooling and the levels of parents' educational background had strong effects on the development of understanding friendship in the children, however those effects became weakened with increase of age. The levels of logic-physical cognition and general intelligence were also relevant to the development concerned. 3 There were some differences compared with the findings of literature in western societies, the dominated motivations for dealing with the friendship issue in Chinese children were not egoism but altruism which were attributed to the effects of education and traditional cultural values.
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    DISCRIMINATION OF COLOR DIFFERENCE OF SURFACE
    Sun Xiuru,Lin Zhiding,Zhang,Jiaying Lin Zhongxian Jing Qicheng (Institute of psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciencea, Beijing,100012)Guo Shuqin(Department of Psychology, Beijing University)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 9-15.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 169 )
    This research reported the results of discrimination of color difference of surface color, Three color attributes-hue, brightness and saturation were investigated in this study respectively. The results indicated that the changes of the character of hue, brightness and saturation had influence in discrimination of color difference of surface color, the value of discrimination of color difference(△E)only changed with the difference of sensation level.Comparing the results of chromatic color with the achromatic color, it was found that the values of △E of various sensation level of chromatic color system were higher than that of the values of △E of achromatic color system.According to these results,the author suggested that color tolerances of samples of the chromatic color system and achromatic color system in the Chinese Color System were:achromatic color system △E<1.5; chromatic color system △E<3.0. These technique data were already used for color tolerances of color samples in the Chinese Color System.
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    THE EFFECT OF CODING MODE ON DUAL-TASK PERFORMANCE
    Ge Liezhong, Zhu Zuxiang (Department of Psychology,Hangzhou University)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 16-21.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 113 )
    The research studied the effects of different coding modes on dual-task performance.It was proved that if there were different coding modes for the current two tasks, the dual-task performance would be improved because of the decrement of information interference.The results supported the two-factor theory on dual-task performance.
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    THE PROCESS OF ADVERTISING DESIGN AND THE INFLUENCES OF SUBJECTS' KNOWLEDGE BACKGROUND AND WORKING EXPERICNCE
    Li Yifei,Zhu Xinming,Zhang Kan (Institute of Psychology, Academia 100012)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 22-29.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 432 )
    subjects with different knowledge background and working experience were asked to accomplish an experimental task of advertising design separately. Making use of the protocols collected from the subjects, the process of advertising design was analyzed from the cognitive psychology point of view,and the influences of subjects' knowledge background and working experience to the process of advertising design was investigated as well. The result showed that:(1) advertising design can be viewed as some kind of behavior of problem solving in which the task of design defined the initial state and goal state of this problem,and advertising design was to produce a draft of the advertisment undergoing series of cognitive procedure:(2) the experimental environment where the design task was wholly accomplished by individuals separately,the process of advertising design included three stages: defining the task,planning the project and working out a draft of the advertisment,this is the case of (3) subjects with different knowledge background and working experience demonstrated differences in aspects of using rules, defining the tasks and planning the project etc.
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    INSIGHT AND CHANGE OF PROBLEM REPRESENTATION
    Zhang Qinglin, Xiao Chonghao(Department of Psychology. Southwest China normal University)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 30-37.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 112 )
    This paper described the process of attaining the insight required to solve the Mutilated Chickboard (MC) problem,The results of the experiment showed that attaining insight requires discovering a correct problem representation,the parity space, In order to find the space,subjects have to change representation from the space of all possible coverings to the meta-level space of possible problem spaces for the MC problem. To find an appropriate representation, the subjects have to obtain strong constraints that guide search and make it highly selective. We also found that subjects were not always simply perceptually driven, Processing driven by concepts were higher transferable than by perception.
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    DISSOCIATION OF CONCSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS ADDITIVE OPERATION PROCESS
    Zhang Yaxu, Li Hongying,Liu Yuxin(Department of psychology,Northeast Normal University,Changchun)Fang Jin(Jilin industry University,Changchun)Chi Lianzi(Yanji mechanic School)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 38-44.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 114 )
    L L. Jacoby's "process dissociation procedure" was used to quantitatively estimate the contributions of conscious and unconscious additive operations to performance on a forced choice task. The results showed:1.Sometimes subjects chose a target figure Which was the operational result and the choices were at a significantly above-baseline level, even if in the exclusion test condition, which undoubtedly provided a strong evidence for the existence of unconscious additive operations.2. Although LoP and PC influenced the estimation of value C, value U was left unchanged, which demonstrated that both LoP and PC were the important factors that could separate conscious and unconscious additive operations.
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    ASSIGNING CASE ROLE OF CHINESE SENTENCES WITH A NEURAL NETWORK
    Zhang Dongsong, Chen Yongming, Yu Bolin (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing,100012)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 45-52.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 113 )
    According to PDP theory, we tried to use a calculating model based on distributed representation to complete the task of case role assignment of Chinese sentences by parallel processing. There were six types of sentences.The model was a four-layer forward neural network: In input layer, we used distributed representaton to collect syntactic,semantic information(of the word in Chinese sentence) and context information,and there were two hidden layers, and output layer(case role layer). One part of the first hidden layer was feedback to the input layer. Error back propagation learning algorithm Was used to adjust three weight matrices sequently according to learning samples and target output in order to get correct answers When the network was stable, After training, the network was somewhat robust. In addition, the neural network method and the traditional symbol processing method used in natural language understanding was compared and analyzed.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIRCT AND INDIRECT MEASURES FOR MEMORY IN AUDITORY WORD FREOUENCY
    ZHou Aibao (Department of Education, Northwest Normal University,lanzhou,730070)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 53-57.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    The difference of the word frequency in visual and auditory experience was discussed. Two experiments explored the character of the auditory word frequency in the pure modality. Experiment 1,40 two-character words of Chinese were obtained through 5-point scaling, which kept the visual word frequency equal, but the auditory one different. Experiment 2, memory test was carried on by making use of the two-character words. Experimental dissociation was found between free recall,recognition, and identification of degraded word in the auditory condition.
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    THE TWO DETERMINING CRITERIA FOR THE CORRECTNESS OF CONCLUSION DERIVED FROM SYLLOGISTIC REASONING
    Hu Zhuqing,Zhang Houcan(Department of Psychology,Beijing Normal University)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 58-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 135 )
    Two experiments were reported in this paper, The main experiment was intended to reveal what criteria were adopted to determine the correctness of conclusion derived from syllogistic reasoning. It was generalized that during the syllogistic reasoning, when the correctness of optional conclusion had to be decided, two determining criteria, that is, 'form criterion' and' content criterion', can be derived from the knowledge structure of any person involved,and which criterion would make more effect also depends on the reasoner's knowlege structure.
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    CONFIRMITORY FACTOR ANALYSIS TO THE CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF THE CHINESE VOCATIONAL INTEREST INVENTORY OF HOLLAND TYPE(Ⅰ):THE INVENTORY'S CONVERGENT VALIDITY AND DISCRIMNANT VALIDITY
    Bai Ligang, Lin Wenquan, Fang Liluo (Institute of Psychology Academia,Beijing,100012)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 64-69.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 207 )
    The Chinese Vocational Interest Inventory of Holland Type was constru cted by following Holland's vocational interest theory (Holland RIASEC theory)and considering the charateristic of Chinese conditions and vocational classification. In two studies we cross-validated the inventory's construct validity in both convergent and discriminant validity aspects by applying confirmitory factor analysis. The results showed that the convergent and discriminant validity was good, and suggested substantial support for the inventory's RIASEC construct validity.
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    A COGNITIVE-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM MODEL ON THE CONSTRUCT OF LOCUS OF CONTROL
    Wang Dengfeng (Department of Psychology, Beijing University, 100871)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 70-75.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 192 )
    The construct of locus of control originally proposed by J.B. Rotter,was redefined as a"Cognitive-Knowledge System Model",based on the empirical and theoretical analysis of the construct, together with the author's recent findings on blaming, excuse-making, life event perception and mental health. It was proposed that the individual's locus of control expectancy, in general, was a generalized tendency of internal or external control. Meanwhile, it was also influenced by the individual, s cognition of the specific situation where he/she is. There was significant interactions among the generalized control tendency,the cognition of the situation, and the social-cultural background of the individual. This model was the theoretical summarization of the relative findings with Chinese subjects, and it also was important reference to personality, social and clinical psychological theory and research.
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    FRONTAL EEG CHARACTERS IN AGING AND ITS CORRELATIVITY WITH SOME COGNITIVE ABILITIES
    Li Deming(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences)Sun Fuli,Jiao Yan (Xiyuan Hospital, Academy of Troditional Chinese Medicine)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 76-81.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 147 )
    A study on the frontal EEG characters in aging and its correlativity with some cognitive abilities was accomplished on 120 subjects of 46 to 80 years of age. The cognitive ability test consisted of 12 tasks and included 4 items of speed and 10 items of performance,total 14 indexes. The results indicated:1) The alpha peak frequencies slowed down and the alpha powers showed with age a tendency of increase in the left and right frontal areas: 2) The speeds of three tasks correlated significantly with the alpha peak frequencies in both the frontal areas, but only the performance of "free recall of picture"correlated with the alpha peak frequency in both the frontal areas and the alpha power in the right area in aging.
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    ROLE OF THE CENTRAL CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM IN MEMORY FORMATION IN YOUNG CHICKS
    Weng Xuchu, Chen Shuangshuang,Kuang Peizi(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing,100012)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 82-88.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 113 )
    The central cholinergic system has been long implicated in learning and memory processes in mammals. However, the precise role of this system in memory formation in birds remains to be determined. Using a one-trialpassive avoidance task, we demonstrated that inhibition of the central choli nergic system activities by intracranial injection of scopolamine produced amnesia in a dose-dependent manner.The amnesia induced by scopolamine in this task developed between 15-20 minutes after training whenever the drug was administered 15 or 30 minutes before training. Since scopolamine in present doses did not affect disgust reactions, general pecking behavior, and motor behavior as shown in an open field task,the memory effects of scopolamine observed in this study cannot be easily attributed to processes unrelated to memory processing,such as sensorimotor performance and general arousal.These results suggested a specific role of the avian central cholinergic system in the formation of intermediateterm -memory,strongly supportingthe three-stage model of memory formation originally proposed by Gibbs and Ng(1977)
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    AUDITORY MISMATCH NEGATIVTY REFLECTS AUTOMATIC PROCESS:EVIDENCE FROM INTERMODAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION PARADIGM
    Fu Shimin, Wei Jinghan (Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica,Beijing 100012)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 89-96.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 123 )
    In order to testify the automaticity of auditory mismatch negativity,a renewed intermodal paradigm of selective attention in which visual and auditory stimuli were presented simultaneously was used in the present study so as to control the unattended condition better. The results showed that auditory MMN was elicited whether the auditory stimuli were attended or not and when attended, the mean amplitude during 140-180ms was equal to that of the unattended, the mean amplitude during 180-220ms was larger than that of the unattended. It was also found that the mean amplitude and peak latency of auditory MMN was not modulated by the degree of task difficulty of visual modality. Therefore, further evidence of the automaticity of auditory MMN was found in this experiment.
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    THE STUDY OF KANG YOUWEL'S IDEAS ON THE THEORY OF HUMAN NATURE
    Zhang Jijia (Yantai Teachers College, Yontai)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 97-103.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 116 )
    Kang Youwei's ideas on the theory of human nature contained three parts: (1) the natural theory of human nature;(2)the theory of reasonable feelings and desires;(3)the theory of changing temperament. Kang Youwei's ideas about the theory of human nature carried on the essences of ancient Chinese theories of human nature,western bourgeois-democratic ideas and the theory of evolution, and advanced further.
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    A REVIEW OF LEGAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE CONTINENT$Helmut Kury
    Wu Zongxian(Max-Planck-Institut fur (Institute of Crime and Reform,ministry ausl.u.intern.Strefrecht of justice of PRC,3 Yuimn Road Chaoyang Freiburg,Germany)District,Beijing 10029)
    . 1996, 28 (01): 104-109.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 174 )
    This article reviewed the development of legal psychology in the Continent, it included three parts: differentiating a few relevant concepts-criminal psychology, forensic psychology, legal psychology, judicial psychology etc;the current situation of legal psychology; and a brief review.
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