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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 December 1962, Volume 6 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    A STUDY OF HIGHER NERVOUS ACTIVITY IN NORMAL AND ABNORMAL CHILDREN BY THE METHOD OF COMBINING DIFFERENT CONNECTIVE SYSTEMS(PART Ⅲ)
    TSAO PING
    1962, 6 (04):  3-19. 
    Abstract ( 431 )  
    The subjects of this part of the experiments were 9—12 year old children of mental deficiency. The results indicated: 1) These children were able to have two simple connective systems function simultaneously, but if the experimental conditions were more complicated, functioning became difficult and the simultaneous function of a simple and a complex connective system was beyond the capacity of the children; 2) The connective systems might be retained at the same degree when they were established on the same level, but the complex one would be disturbed when they were established on different levels; 3) Verbal reactions to the stimulus could not compensate the motor disorder, sometimes it even deepened the disorder; 4) The weakness of the fundamental nervous processes, especially the inner inhabition, the wide irradiation of the excitatory processes, the pathological inertness of the fundamental nervous processes, the extensive negative induction, the disorder of normal interactions of two signaling systems, the weakness of the abstrative and regulative function of the second signaling system and the synthetic activities of the cerebral cortex were all shown by the subjects in the experiments.
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    CONCERNING A GENERAL THEORY OF ILLUSIONS AND THE EXPLANATION AND CONTROL OF THEM
    LUNG SHU-HSIU
    1962, 6 (04):  20-29. 
    Abstract ( 516 )  
    In the general theory of illusions set forth in this article, illusions as well as normal perceptions are regarded as reflex end-effects of nervous action started by a given set of stimulus conditions and fully determined in their conscious content by existing neural connections. Essentially different environmental features or characteristics of objective reality can offer the same stimulus conditions. Illusions occur when neural connections remain what they are since their establishment in evolutional and developmental history, while the environment takes on new features or reality characteristics change from the usual to the unusualFrom the point of view of the proposed theory, an illusion of visual stereo-effect (the "kite illusion"), the so-called "illusion of Aristotle", the geometrical optical illusions and the "moon illusion" are discussed. The question of the possibility of reforming undesirable illusions, of changing the illusory into normal perception, is answered in the affirmative, and the means thereto is suggested.
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    AN ANALYSIS OF THE OBSERVATIONAL ERRORS IN INDUSTRIAL PRECISION INSPECTION
    PENG JUI-HSIANG
    1962, 6 (04):  30-42. 
    Abstract ( 448 )  
    The factors influencing the observational errors during precision instrument inspection were studied in a factory inspection center by the following methods: 1) Counting the frequency of the worker's eye-blinks; 2) Recording the worker's reaction time between the instant as he looked into the eye-piece of the optical micrometer and the recording of the results; 3) Administrating an aligning optimeter test, as designed by W. oMoede, before and after work.The results indicated that there were two kinds of errors in the inspection task, namely, aligning errors and negligent errors. The causes of aligning errors were: 1) Visual fatigue. The longer the worker engaged in such kind of strenous visual work, the higher the frequency of his eye-blinks; 2) Self-suggestion (preoccupation). As the worker acquired incorrectly the knowledge of results, the influence of preoccupation was the more obvious; 3) Emotional factor. The more the worker doubted of the inspection results, the more frequent the inspection errors; 4) Constant errors; and 5) The structure of the stimuli, such as length, direction and form of the instrumental scales, the contrast between the scales and background, etc. The causes of negligent errors were: 1) Fatigue of the second signaling system; and 2) Extra-stimuli, causing distraction.The author proposed a reasonable arrangement of the alternation of work and rest as well as the correct method of acquiring knowledge of results. The effect of using blinking as a measure of visual fatigue and the causes of constant errors were also discussed.
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    EXPERIMENTS ON THE SELECTION OF FLASH LIGHT SIGNAL FREQUENCIES
    LI CHIA-CHIH HO PAO-YUAN MA MOU-CHAO
    1962, 6 (04):  43-51. 
    Abstract ( 439 )  
    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum frequencies and light-dark ratio for two flash light signals which are supposed to he incorporated with a steady light signal. Experiments were performed both under low illumination and under sunshine. An equal discriminability scale for flash light frequencies has also been constructed. The results indicated that the optimum frequencies for the signal with high flash rate fall around 160 cycle per minute with light-dark ratio 2:1, and that for the signal with low flash rate fall within the range of 55—60 cycle per minute with light-dark ratio 1:1.
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    FLASH LIGHT SIGNAL DISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL DISCRIMINABILITY SCALE
    LI CHIA-CHIH MA MOU-CHAO
    1962, 6 (04):  52-61. 
    Abstract ( 461 )  
    An equal discriminability scale for flash light frequencies was constructed following the procedure as outlined by W. R. Garner and H. W. Hake, with some modifications in the experimental set up. The curve plotted with the data collected showed no "end effects", and proved to be identical with the curve of successive differential limen. It was also found that, within the range of 5—182 cycle per minute, the discriminability for flash light frequencies obeys the power law.
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    THE PROBLEM OF TIME PERCEPTION IN THE DISCRIMINATION OF FLASH LIGHT FREQUENCIES
    HO PAO-YUAN MA MOU-CHAO
    1962, 6 (04):  62-71. 
    Abstract ( 475 )  
    The influence of various rhythmic sounds on the discrimination of intermittent light with lower, medium and higher frequencies were studied experimentally. Four types of rhythmic sounds were used: 1) tempo synchronized with the flash frequency; 2) tempo with no fixed relation to the flash frequence; 3) constant tempo, and 4) tempo proportional to the flash frequency.1. The synchronized sound tempo showed positive influence on the discrimination, which exhibited more strikingly with the increase of the flash frequency. Tempo with no fixed relation showed negative influence, but the influence decreased with the increase of the flash frequency. Positive influence of the constant tempo on the medium flash frequency was slightly higher than that on the lower frequency. The influence of the proportional tempo on the higher flash frequency was not significant. These findings suggested that the rhythmic sound influenced the discrimination of flash frequency through time perception.2. The discrimination of the lower flash frequency depended more on some auxiliary means, such as counting; and that for the higher frequency depended more on direct perception; with the medium frequency as a transitional stage.3. The DL of the time interval occupied by a single cycle in the intermittent light, obtained in this experiment, was lower than that obtained by authors who did not use flash light in their studies. This suggested that the summation of sensation should be taken into consideration in the determination of differential limen.
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