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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 7 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    THE EFFECT OF DISTANCE AND POSTURE OF OBSERVER ON THE PERCEPTION OF SIZE
    CHING CHI-CHENG, PENG JUI-HSEUNG AND FANG YUN-CHIU
    . 1963, 7 (01): 22-32.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 114 )
    Studies were carried out with 48 Ss on size perception. The standard stimulus was a balloon (diameter: 38.2 cm.) placed at distances of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 metres from S, the comparison stimulus being another balloon placed by the side of S, and adjustable in size by S operating a valve, Ss were instructed to make size judgments with a naive attitude.It was found that when the observer sat erect, size constancY broke down strikingly at 200 and 250 metres, but only a few Ss made over-estimations. When the observer was in a prone position (raising his head and eyes) and in a supine position (lowering his head and eyes), the perceptual size shrank in comparison with the results obtained in the erect observations. The prone position caused a more marked decrease in perceptual size, and observations made in a fully prone position yielded smaller perceptual sizes than those made in a semi-prone position, When the supine observer bent his head backward to see the stimulus in an inverse visual field, the perceptual size decreased to a minimum, and he reported at the same time an increase in perceptual distance. The results of this study were discussed in relation to the moon illusion. It is suggested that a normal relation between the postural position of the observer and the environment plays an important role in size perception, the distortion of which also causes a breakdown of the constancy phenomena.
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    TARGET SIZE AS A CUE TO DISTANCE JUDGMENT ALONG A GROUND STRIP
    PENG JUI-HSEUNG, FANG YUN-CHIU AND CHING CHI-CHENG
    . 1963, 7 (01): 33-43.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 83 )
    A standard distance target disc (diameter: 38.2 cm.) was fixed 50 metres from the observer, on a ground strip of 230 metres, and S was asked to divide the strip into equal sections using the 50 metre target as the standard. Carrying a set of discs, E displayed them one by one along the strip in ascending, and descending order, in accordance with directions given by S, thus arranging them in a line with the standard, with perceived "equi-distant-intervals" marked off. Ss were divided into 3 groups. In each group, the experiments were made with a different set of discs. Thus in group A, the discs increased in size, proportionally to the standard disc, by degrees set out in Emmert's Law, in group B, the discs decreased in size consecutively by 20%, and in group C, the size of the discs was equal to the standard.Results: 1) In all the groups the perceived distances deviated from the physical distances, and the degree of error increased with every distance interval farther away from S. 2) In each group judgments showed some consistency; group A produced overestimation of distances, i.e. the perceived distances were greater than the physical distances; groups B and C produced underestimation of distances, but the former showed greater underestimation.From the relationship between disc sizes and values of distance judgments, a formula was derived for computing disc sizes for best distance judgments. To verify this formula, another set of discs whose sizes were computed from the formula were tested on another group of Ss, and this yielded quite accurate judgments, of equi-distant-intervals. This study revealed that in a particular distance range there is a functional relationship between target size and accuracy of distance judgment, and that the latter, therefore, can be quantitatively predicted.
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    THE APPLICATION OF PSYCHOTHERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA
    LEE HSIN-TIEN
    . 1963, 7 (01): 57-66.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 170 )
    Authors differed in their opinions as to the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia. According to current theories of etiology and personality, it was believed that psychotherapy is important and indispensable in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia, and a synthetic therapy method was devised by combining drug and occupational therapies. 60 paranoid schizophrenics, divided into 3 groups of 20 patients each, received the treatment, successively the therapy lasted 16 weeks for each group. The duration of their disease averaged 5.3 years. This article is to describe the psychotherapeutic method and to analyse its effects on the disease.There were 3 therapeutic stages: 1) the stage of active delusion, 2) the stage of unstable delusion, and 3) the stage of disappearance of delusion. In accord to the different stages of the disease, we administered group psychotherapy in combination with individual psychotherapy which consisted of different procedures and contents. At the end of the treatment 35(58.3%) recovered, 18(30%) much improved, 6(10%) improved, and only one case remained unchanged. The patients' responses to psychotherapy in each stage were analyzed, and psychotherapy proved to be an indispensable treatment both in the first stage and in the third stage, and also during the course of remission.A tentative theory concerning the role of psychotherapy was formulated, believing that an optimum relationship should be established between the doctor and the patient, thus the former's therapeutic measures can exercise effective influence upon the patient's psychological state. This conduce to the disappearance of pathological state. As the effect of psychotherapy, changes appeared in the patient's, relationship system which reduced the peculiarities of his original psychological state and improved his maladjustments to the environment.
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    AN EEG AND CLINICAL STUDY OF THE CORTICAL FUNCTION OF NEURASTHENICS
    KUNG YAO-HSIEN
    . 1963, 7 (01): 67-76.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 115 )
    The EEG and the symptoms of 150 neurasthenics were studied, and the EEG of the patients were compared with those of 30 normal subjects. The results indicated: 1) the EEG of patients were different from those of normal subjects in regard to the basic rhythms, amplitudes and the reactions to sound and light stimuli; 2) EEG of the 150 neurasthenics may be classified into 5 groups according to the characteristics of basic rhythms; 3) there seems to be some relationship between the EEG and the symptoms of the patients.
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    A CASE STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF WORKING OF AN ADVANCED TEXTILE WORKER
    TSENG CHEN-RUI
    . 1963, 7 (01): 77-82.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    The purpose of this study was to analyse the characteristics of working skill of an advanced textile worker to reveal the psychological factors for the promotion of productive efficiency. The results show that the characteristics of her working methods are: proficient and precise operation skill, accurate observation, efficient distribution of attention and effective planning of work. Besides, she always checked her work and summarized her experiences regularily and her operations were evenly distributed and rhythmically carried out.
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