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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 6 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A DEVELOPMENTAL ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC STUDY OF CHILDREN AND YOUTHS AGED 8 TO 20 YEARS
    LIU SHIH-YIH, WU CHIN-EH
    . 1962, 6 (03): 3-15.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    Investigations of the spontaneous and "evoked" potentials was carried out on 910 normal children and youths aged 8 to 20 years with an Ediswan 16-channel electroencephalograph. We have stimulated the majority of our subjects with "threshold" single and repetitive flashes of light:1. From 8—20 years the occipital rhythmic activity increases in frequency but decreases in amplitude with age. The range of changes in frequency always not exceeds 1±0.5/sec.2. From 8—20 years absence of θ waves has strict regularity. It disappears first from the occipital region, then from the temporal region and finally from the parietal region.3. There are positive correlation between the phenomenon of "dicrotic" and "multicrotic" and the development and maturation of the cerebral cortex of children and youths. Display of the phenomenon of "dicrotic" and "multicrotic" decreases with age.4. From 8—20 years the percentage of display of the "blocking" responses elicited by "threshold" single flashes increases with age. Beyond the age of 13, duration of the "blocking" responses usually exceeds 2 sec. and "full blocking" is always prominent.5. "Driving" responses elicited by "threshold" repetitive flashes show that neurons of the cerebral cortex of children and youths aged 8—16 years have the high plasticity.6. Our results show that it seems to have a period of acceleration of brain's development at about 13—14 years of age.
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    THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FROM 4 TO 7 YEARS
    LIU SHIH-YIH, WU CHIN-EH, SUN WEN-LUNG
    . 1962, 6 (03): 16-26.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 113 )
    Electroencephalographic investigations of the spontaneous and "evoked" potentials were performed on 758 normal preschool children with an Ediswan 16-channel electroencephalograph. "Evoked" potentials was initiated by "threshold" single and repetitive flashes of light:1. EEG aged 4—7 years show an outstanding competition between α and θ waves. At about 7 years of age this competition is finished on 51.5% children in the occipital region, but only on 6.7% children in the temporal region.2. From 4—7 years the occipital rhythmic activity increases in frequency but amplitude stands high with age. The range of changes in frequency always exceeds 1±1/sec.3. The vast majority of children aged 4—7 years shows the phenomenon of "dicrotic" and "muhicrotic".4. Short duration and low percentage of display are the traits of the "blocking" responses elicited by "threshold" single flashes on preschool children.5. Occasional display, narrow range of "driving" frequency and absence of afterdischarge are the traits of the "driving" responses elicited by "threshold" repetitive flashes on preschool children.6. Our results show that it seems to have a period of acceleration of brain's development between 5—6 years of age.
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    A STUDY OF THE HIGHER NERVOUS ACTIVITY IN NORMAL AND ABNORMAL CHILDREN BY THE METHOD OF COMBINING DIFFERENT CONNECTIVE SYSTEMS(REPORT Ⅱ)
    TSAO PING
    . 1962, 6 (03): 27-39.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 126 )
    The experimental results obtained from 9—12 year old children having cerebrasthenic syndrome indicate; 1, These children are able to perform simultaneously functions of two simple connective systems. They can also keep the simple and complex connective systems for same time, but if the experimental conditions become complicated, its performance would be difficulted, 2, The connective systems may be firmly maintained at the same degree when they are established on the same level, but the more complex connective system is disturbed when they are established on different level, 3, The motor reaction is disturbed when connected with verbal reaction. Verbal reaction to the symbolic meaning of stimulus can compensate motor disorder, 4, The fundamental nervous. process, especially the inner inhabition, the regulative function of second signaling system and the complex synthetic activities of cerbral cortex of the children having cerebrasthenic syndrome are all weakened.
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    SOME PROBLEMS ON THE FORMATION OF NUMBER-CONCEPTION IN 3—4 YEAR CHILDREN
    SHEN CHIA-HSIAN
    . 1962, 6 (03): 40-48.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 109 )
    This is an experimental study on the formation of conception of numbers in pre-school children. The experimental results obtained indicate:1. The development of the counting ability is related to the formation of the conception of numbers, but the ability of counting numbers is not the same as the formation of number-conception.2. It is possible for 3—4 year old children to grasp the conception of number of certain amount and on a certain level.3. The formation of number-conception begins in oral number counting. The steps are; (a) oral number counting; (b) number counting of objects; (c) giving the total sum by number counting; (d) being able to pick the same number of objects as what the experimenter has shown in model illustration; (e) being able to pick the number of objects as prescribed by the experimenter.4. The processes of the formation of number-conception consists of (a) from repeating the sounds of sequences of numbers to the understanding of its meaning; (b) from discriminating the numbers to the use of them; (c) from forming the ideas of numbers to the conception of numbers.
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    THE SPECIAL IN ASPECTS IN MEMORIZING CHINESE CHARACTERS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
    VAN YEN YIN, ZIAN CHI TSEN
    . 1962, 6 (03): 49-60.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 138 )
    Chinese characters are taken as some complex stimuli composed of three fundamental elements, namely, the phonetic sound, the meaning and their symbolic sings. For the beginners, learning Chinese characters is a complex process of differentiation and synthesis. It is likewise a composite process of perception, memorizing and thinking. This study is carried out with systematic observation and experiment with 160 pupils from three sections of the first year class from two elementary schools in Shanghai. We find that the beginners in memorizing Chinese characters has to go through the following three stages:1. The development of generalization of general relation between the different parts made up of the symbolic signs of the characters, and their relation with the phonetic sound and the meaning of the characters.2. The development of differentiation often being neglected in its details, between the different parts made up of symbolic signs of the characters, and their relation with the phonetic sound and the meaning of the characters.3. The development of the permanent and specific differentiation between the different parts made up of symbolic signs of characters, and their relation between the phonetic sound and the meaning of the characters.The experimental study indicates that there are three essential factors affecting the children in handling Chinese characters effeciently and economically, namely, the level of the physical and mental development of the child; the essential parts of the formation of Chinese characters, and the method of instruction. On the basis of the specific features of Chinese characters and the level of the intellectual development of the child the way of instruction plays an important role.
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    TIME INTERVAL AND ERROR OF TACTUAL-KINESTHETIC LOCALIZATION
    J. C. TSAO
    . 1962, 6 (03): 61-70.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 79 )
    The investigation consisted of 3 experiments. In the experiment on tactual localization, the Weber's second method was used. In the experiment on tactual-kinesthetic localization the observer himself with his right hand touched his left forearm on the volar side and located the spot after an interval, and thus kinesthetic cues from the movements of the right arm in appling the stimulation might be used in localization. In the experiments on kinesthetic localization, the observer made a dot on a sheet of paper instead of on the forearm and located the dot afterwards. The tactual stimuli were of three degress in intensity, i. e. weak, medium and strong. In the experiment on kinesthetic localization, the dots were made lighter medium or heavior roughly corresponding the stimuli of different intensities in the other two experiments. The time intervals used in all three experiments were of 2″, 5″, 10″, 30″, 60″, 120″ and 300″. Each experiment consisted of 20 sessions, in each of which 21 trials were given, one for each intensity of stimulation and time interval.The results showed that as the time interval lengthened, the error of localization increased. In the tactual-kinesthetic localization there was a perfect linear function.The author contended that there was some similarity between the fact that as the time interval lengthened the error of localization increased and generalization observed in memory of verbal and of pictorial materials. The possible neurological mechanism for these phenomena was also discussed.
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    SOME DIFFERENCES OF THE FUNCTIONAL STATES OF CEREBRAL CORTEX IN PATIENTS OF NEURATHENIA, HYPERTENSION AND PEPTIC ULCER
    SON WEI-CHEN
    . 1962, 6 (03): 71-77.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 78 )
    This study concerns with results of the discriminative reactions in patients of neurasthenia, hyperpiesics and peptic ulcer.The results indicate: the latency period and the fluctuation of discriminative reaction of neurasthenics and hyperpiesics with conspicuous neurasthenic symptoms are significantly larger than those of normal persons. The difference between the discriminative reaction of hyperpiesics without conspicuous neurasthenic symptoms, ulcer gastrics and normal person is negligible, which shows that the disorder is rather less severe. The experimental results of hyperpiesics without any self-conscious symptoms and normal person are similiar. This may be due to the fact that their functional disorder is not reflected in this experiment.
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    PROBLEMS CONCERNING THE PREDICTION OF SUCCESSFUL AIRCRAFT PILOTS
    CHING CHI-CHENGM LIN CHUNG-HSIEN
    . 1962, 6 (03): 78-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 86 )
    Three topics relating the problem of aircraft pilot selection were discussed: 1. An historical review, with special emphasis on the work done in the United States and Soviet Union during the Second World War. 2. On the theoretical and methodological side, a theory was developed in which flight ability is regarded as a dynamic interaction of sensory-motor skills, and of emotional and personality characteristics; therefore performance tests of a complex, dynamic type should be designed, simulating the main features of flight manoeuvres, rather than that measuring only the basic perceptual motor processes. These tests, however, should be considered jointly with motivational and personality evaluations. 3. Comments on future developments of aircrew, as well as astronaut, selection.
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