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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 March 2000, Volume 32 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    ORTHOGRAPHIC AND PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING IN READING CHINESE
    Wong Kin, Fai Ellick, Chen Hsuan-Chih(Department 0f Psychologr, The Chinese University of Hong Kong )
    2000, 32 (01):  1-6. 
    Abstract ( 1034 )  
    Using the modified moving-window display technique, two experiments were carried out toinvestigate orthographic and phonological processing during Chinese reading and comprehension. Acritical character in each of the experimental passages was manipulated to be either intact,orthographically similar, homophonic, or totally dissimilar to the original character. In Experiment l,only the pointed character was shown, whereas one character to its left and two characters to its rightwere also displayed in degraded quality in Experiment 2. The profiles of the homophonic condition werethe same as those of the dissimilar condition and the orthographically similar-condition at the early stageof processing in both experiments 1 and 2, such that they all deviated from the profile of the intactcondition. Experiment 2 further showed that the violation effects in the dissimilar condition lasted longerthan those in both the homophonic condition and the orthographically similar condition. These results didnot support the notion that phonology played an early and constructive role during Chinese reading,although phonology may have been useful for the recovery of lexical impairment. The minororthographic difference between the intact words and the orthographically similar words was sufficient toproduce a substantial impairment suggesting that orthographic information played an important role inreading Chinese.
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    THE ROLE OF THEMATIC AND SEMANTIC INFORMATION IN READING CHINESE
    Chow Ching, Yee Chan, Sin-fong, Song Hua, Chen Hsuan-Chih(Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
    2000, 32 (01):  7-12. 
    Abstract ( 1026 )  
    Researchers differ in their views on whether thematic and semantic information can possibly, affectinitial sentence processing. Three experiments were designed to explore this issue using a speciallydesigned moving-window technique. Experiment 1 demonstrated that when the background informationwas not obvious enough, no thematic effect was detected. In Experiment 2, when additional backgroundinformation was provided, the thematic effect was observed. Experiment 3 showed evidence thatsemantic information affected initial sentence processing.
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    A STUDY ON THE PROCESSING OF AMBIGUOUS PHRASES IN CHINESE
    Zhang Yaxu, Zhang Houcan ,Shu Hua(Department of Psychology Beijing Normal University Beijing 100875)
    2000, 32 (01):  13-19. 
    Abstract ( 1168 )  
    In Chinese language, there are three types of phrases, which are composed of one verb, t2o nouns,and one auxiliary, and are temporarily ambiguous between modifier-noun construction (MNC) andnarrative-object structure(NOS). Two of them bias towards either MNC or NOS. The third one isbalanced between MNC and NOS. Directions of being continued, ambiguity, and the types of thesephrases were manipulated to examine the processing of these phrases in sentence reading. With asubject self-paced word-by-word moving window paradigm, significant garden-path effects were foundon the second disambiguating region when ambiguous phrases were continued inappropriately. Mostimportant, subjects resolved the syntactic ambiguity of balanced phrases as modifier-noun structure,which was discussed in terms of sentence parsing principles proposed by garden path models, the resultsof corpus analysis conducted here, and the integrality of verb argument structures.
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    THE NATURE OF SUBLEXICAL PROCESSING IN READING CHINESE:PHONOLOGICAL ACTIVATION OF SEMANTIC RADICALS
    Zhou Xiaolin, Lu Xueming(Department of Psychology Peking University Beijing 100871)Shu Hua(Department of Psychology Beijing Normal University Beijing 100875)
    2000, 32 (01):  20-24. 
    Abstract ( 1434 )  
    Most complex Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phoneticradical on the right. Semantic radicals may indicate the semantic category of morphemes correspondingto the characters, whereas phonetic radicals may point to the pronunciations of the whole character.Using a primed naming technique, this study investigated into the nature of sublexical processing inreading Chinese. Complex characters were used as primes while characters homophonic to the semanticradicals embedded in the primes were used as targets. Consistent with Zhou & Marslen-Wilson (1999a,1999b), which observed semantic activation of phonetic radicals in reading complex characters, thisstudy found phonological activation of semantic radicals in reading low frequency complex characters. Itwas concluded that there were no fundamental differences between sublexical processing of semantic andphonetic radicals and lexical processing of simple and complex characters.
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    MONITORING OF MULTIPLE MEMORY SYSTEMS: THE INFLUENCE OF LOP AND METAMEMORY TRAINING
    Luo Jin, Lin Zhongxian(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (01):  25-29. 
    Abstract ( 968 )  
    How are episode memory, semantic memory and PRS (perceptual representation) monitored byFOK(feeling of knowing)? Previous researches showed that episode memory was well monitoredcompared to semantic memory. ms result was considered as the monitoring pattern of multiplememory systems by matememory. In this experiment R-responses were taken as the index of episodememory, K-responses as that of semantic memory, and stem-completion as that of PRS. It was provedthat the said monitoring pattern was fairly stable, it did not change with the deep level of processingand training of FDX ms result implied that the feature of memory traces and the metamemorystrategy subjects adopted could not altar the metamemory monitoring pattern.
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    SELF-INTEGRATION ON TIME PERSPECTIVE:I. PROJECTIVE TEST FOR THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE
    Huang Xiting, Zheng Yong(Institute and Department of Psychology,Southwest China Normal University ,Chongqing 400715)
    2000, 32 (01):  30-35. 
    Abstract ( 1258 )  
    This paper conducted a specially-designed projective test on 201 subjects with respect to timeexperiencing and self-concept information. The findings were:’1) in terms of extension, attainmentshowed a wider degree towards the present while diffusion did the same towards the past, 2) in termsof direction, attainment was more future-oriented, while diffusion was past-oriented; 3) in terms ofrelatedness, attainment was more capable of integrating past, present, and future, while diffusion wasprone to be led to time-splitting and future perspective break-down. The findings above gave apreliminary display of the structuring force exerted by certain identity status on time Perspective.
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    SELF-INTEGRATION ON TIME PERSPECTIVE:II. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH FOR THE PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISM
    Zheng Yong, Huang Xiting(Institute and Department of Psychology Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing 400715)
    2000, 32 (01):  36-39. 
    Abstract ( 899 )  
    In this paper, two samples of attainment and diffusion were fetched for a selective reaction experiment on the past, present, and future altermatives of active vs. passive words. The findings not onlyconfirmed the existence of the constructive factors (extension, direction, and relatedness) of timeperspective, but also showed that, in terms of active and passive self-concepts, attainment tended totake the active one to present and future, leaving behind the passive one, while diffusion did theopposite. The findings above gave a full display of the structuring force exerted by certain identitystatus on time experience and self-concept and the relative changes it brought forth on the nature of theindividual's time perspective.
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    EXPERIMENT PROOF OF TWO-STAGE MODEL IN SEARCHING IMAGINED SPACE
    Zhang Kan, Mou Weimin, Guo Sumei(Institute of Psychology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (01):  40-44. 
    Abstract ( 915 )  
    Subjects read narratives describing directions of objects around an upright observer, who was periodically reoriented, and given a description of the objects in different positions around his body.Two-factor experiment supported that there were two stages in identifying which object was currentlylocated at the observer's front, back, right, and left. The first stage was identifying the directionassigned to the spatial relation by the relevant axis of the reference frame. The pattern of process timewas front < back < right = left, the second stage was identifying the object in the probed directions.The pattern of process time was focus < opposition to focus < left to focus = right to focus. The twostages were serial.
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    EFFECTS OF THE ROTATION MODE IN SEARCHING IMAGINED ENVIRONMENTS
    Mou Weimin, Yang Shan, Zhang Kan(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (01):  45-48. 
    Abstract ( 862 )  
    In this study, we explored the effects of the rotation mode on the direction effect and the relativelocation effect. The results found both the direction effect and the relative location effect were rotationmode specific. These results showed that the represented self was referred when computing the spatialrelations; supported that the topological structure of the objects caused the relative location effect
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    EXPRESSED ANGER AND SUPPRESSED ANGER:EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYSIS ON THE FORMS OF ANGER AND THEIR FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENCES ON TASK PERFORMANCE
    Meng Zhaolan, Deng Hui(Peking University , Beijing 100871)
    2000, 32 (01):  49-53. 
    Abstract ( 968 )  
    Two experimental studies were presented in this paper : Experiment 1. Expressed anger and suppressed anger eliciting in a laboratory procedure were classified and their different functions on a "detour"task performance were illustrated; Experiment 2. These two types of anger were elicited by the sameprocedure as Experiment 1 and identified by a "seeking" task performance. Heart rate was measured asa verifying index. The results showed that expressed and suppressed anger were clearly classified,illustrating that both eruptive and inhibitory characters of anger definitely existed in infants. Thefunctions of the two types of anger were significantly different on task performance. The performingeffects of expressed anger subjects were superior to suppressed anger subjects.
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    A DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF PRIMARY COGNITIVE ABILITIES IN ADULTS
    Shen Jiliang, Chen Bo, Wang Dahua(Institute of Developmental Psychoology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    2000, 32 (01):  54-58. 
    Abstract ( 917 )  
    This study examined age differences and age-related changes in adults' primary cognitive abilities.Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were analyzed. The results indicated significant mean level declinein primary cognitive abilities. However, dissimilarities between different abilities were apparent in thetiming and rate of decline. Over a 3-year interval, wide individual differences became noticeable in thedirection and rate of change, and reliable decrement of most abilities appeared only in the group overage 60 or 70.
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    THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LONELINESS, PEER ACCEPTANCE AND THEIR RELATION TO FAMILY FUNCTIONING
    Yu Guoliang, Xin Ziqiang, Luo Xiaolu(Institute of Developmental Psychology,Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    2000, 32 (01):  59-64. 
    Abstract ( 1238 )  
    This study explored the characteristics of loneliness, peer acceptance and their relation to familyfunctioning through scale, peer nominations and interview. The results showed : Fourth throughsixth-grade children had loneliness, compared with normal children, children with learning disabilitieshad higher loneliness and lower peer acceptance, significant correlation existed between peer acceptance,loneliness and family functioning.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS, LEARNING STRATEGY,AND THE LEVEL OF INTELLIGENCE ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS
    Wang Zhenhong(Qingyang Teacher's College, Qingyang 745000)Liu Ping(Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070)
    2000, 32 (01):  65-69. 
    Abstract ( 1432 )  
    Questionnaires were group administered to 119 high school students, this study examined theinfluence of motivation, learning strategy, and intelligence factors on the academic achievement of thestudents. Correlation, regression, and path analyses indicated that motivation, learning strategy, and IQwere not only correlated with academic achievement, but there also was a causal relationship amongthem. The study demonstrated that self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, master goal, learning strategy, andIQ were positively correlated with achievement. Extrinsic motivation, performance goal were negativelycorrelated with achievement. Moreover, IQ(β= 0.476), learning strategy (β= 0.220),self-efficacy(β =0.207), and master goal (β= 0.185) influenced academic achievement directly, intrinsic motivationinfluenced academic achievement indirectly by raising the level of the use of learning strategy.
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    INFLUENCE OF PRE-COMPOSITION PLANNING TIME ON THE PRE-COMPOSITION PLANNING EFFECT
    Liu Miao, Zhang Biyin(Beijing Normal University Beijing 100875)
    2000, 32 (01):  70-74. 
    Abstract ( 855 )  
    This paper attempted to study the influence of pre-composition planning time on the pre-compositionplanning effect by the method of combining natural experiment and laboratory experiment. Our studydiscovered that the composition form determined the planning time, which in turn influenced theplanning effect which then determined the composition form. This indicated that with both the plan andthe external representation, the plan itself played a decisive role in the relations between the limitedtime for planning and the planning form. A more complicated case about the effect of the externalrepresentation emerged when the plan existed, i. e. the external representation is of great significancewhen there is plenty of time for planning. In contrast, the plan is of greater significance than theexternal representation when there is not enough time to plan.
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    COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT COMPUTER APPLICATION MODES IN INSTRUCTION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL GEOMETRY
    Li Min(Graduate School of Education, Stanford University)Chen Qi(Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    2000, 32 (01):  75-81. 
    Abstract ( 889 )  
    There are two instructional modes when computer is applied to education, Tool mode and Tutormode. This paper reviewed issues of theoretical and empirical researches on these two fields, andproposed a cooperative tool mode with Windows PBrush. A one-week instruction in geometric reasoningwas conducted and its effect on geometric knowledge and reasoning ability was investigated by pre-posttest experiment. Attitude and motivation of students and teachers were investigated with surveys andinterviews. it also analyzed learning process of students with work analysis method. The result showedthat:Cooperative tool mode instruction brought on significant outcomes in reasoning ability, geometricknowledge, and study motivation than cooperative CAI; proper instructional methods can promoteinstruction effects, feature and quantity of information representation can affect the learner's cognitiveconstruction.
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    THE POLYSIALIC ACID MODIFICATION OF THE NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES INVOLVED IN MEMORY RETENTION OF CHICKS
    Hu Jiafen, Sui Nan, Kuang Peizi, Guan Linchu(Instivitute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (01):  82-85. 
    Abstract ( 942 )  
    The ploysialic acid (PSA) modification of neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) not onlymodulates cell interaction of neural development but also plays an important role in learning andmemory. The endoneuraminidase NE (endo-N) which specifically removes a-2, 8 linked polysialic acidfrom NCAM was used to assay the functional role of PSA in the chicks memory retention. Thememory retention of day-old chicks was significantly impaired after a localized injection of endo-N intoIMHV. The dose lower than 4μg had no significant effect. The improvement effect of prenatalcorticosterone on memory retention of dark hatched chicks was retarded with endo-N administrationintraplacentally on the embryonic day 20. All these suggested that PSA of NCAM might be involved inmemory retention of chicks and synaptic plasticity during brain development.
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    AN AMNESIC PATIENT WITH RIGHT CEREBRAL DYSPLASIA:PRIMING INDEPENDENT OF RIGHT NEOCORTEX
    Wang Changsheng(Department of Psychology,Peking University,Beijing 100871)Yu Shengyuan(Department of Neurology,Chinese People's Liberation Army G General Hopital,Beijing 100853)Tang Jianrong(Institut fuer Biosynthese Neuraler Strukturen,University Hamburg
    2000, 32 (01):  86-90. 
    Abstract ( 848 )  
    Two experiments were conducted with two perceptual priming tasks (Chinese character rootcompletion, Chinese character identification) and two semantic priming tasks (Chinese chunkfree-association, Chinese character preference) on one amnesic patient with right cerebral dysplasia(WMS-CR=46, WISC-CR IQ=56) to explore if right neocortex impairment had any effect on perceptualpriming or semantic priming. it was found that the patient performed almost equally or even better thanthe two normal control groups did on the four tasks. The results suggested that priming (perceptual orsemantic priming) was independent of human right neocortex.
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    EFFECTS OF HYPERBARIC OXYGEN ON THE LEARNING-MEMORY BEHAVIOR AND CELLULAR MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTER IN RELATED BRAIN AREAS OF YOUNG MICE
    Xu Xiaohong, Guo Dan, Zhang Zigui(Biology Deparment of Zhenjiang Normal University,Jinhua 321004)Wu Fumei(Dept. of Biological Sciences and Technique,Nanjing University Nanjing 210093)
    2000, 32 (01):  91-94. 
    Abstract ( 940 )  
    In the present investigation, the spontaneous activity, the behavior of learning and memory of 20-dayold mice were studied by using open field and Y-maze after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Theneuronal density, cell nuclear area and the ratio of nuclear and plasma of memory-related brain areas(cerebral cortex, hippocampus) of these mice were measured by using computer image analysis system.The results ale as follows: (1) Compared with the control group, 0.1 MPa hyperbaric oxygen canremarkably ameliorate the learning and memory retention of young mice. (2) The neuronal density, cellnuclear area and the ratio of nuclear and plasma of the mice were significantly increased after 0.1 MPahyperbaric oxygen treatment. Compared with the control group, 0.25 MPa hyperbaric oxygen canremarkably decreace ace the spontaneous activity of young mice. These results indicated that 0.1 MPahyperbaric oxygen treatment not only could enhance brain development but also improve the function oflearning-memory of young mice.
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    RESEARCH ON GSR AND MMPI IN COLLEGE STUDENTS
    Xiang Yiwen(Physical Education College,Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410012)Yan Kele, Lu Yunqing(Pedagogy Dept. Hebei Teachers' University,Shijiazhuang 050016)
    2000, 32 (01):  95-98. 
    Abstract ( 1370 )  
    26 college students were subjects, GSR was recorded with San-eilA97A Electro-Encepha lographicMachine and personality traits were measured with Chinese MMPI. Results were as follows:1) Therewere great differences on the basic level of GSR in general college students (P <0.001). 2) The basiclevel of GSR had significant positive correlation with D, Si, Mas, Cn, and F, and had a significantnegative correlation with L, K. 3) In different groups of GSR basic level, the differences on L, si, Masbetween the high and low groups were proved significant by T test. 4) In different groups ofhabituation there were significant differences on K. Si, Mas between the poor and good groups andsignificant differences on Si, Cn between the poor and mean groups (P < 0.05). 5) the poor group ofhabituation had higher basic level on GSR, the good group of habituation had lower basic level on GSR.The differences were significant.
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    SEX ROLE INVENTORY FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS (CSRI)
    Qian Mingyi, Zhang Guangjian, Luo Shanhong, Zhang Shen(Psychology Department, Beijing University, Beijing 100871)
    2000, 32 (01):  99-104. 
    Abstract ( 2051 )  
    Based on the sex stereotype and social desirability, both positive and negative sex role scales forChinese college students were established. According to the results of 380 participants the scales showedhigh reliability and validity. The participants could be classified into 4 sex role types:masculine,feminine, andryognous and undifferentiated, according to Bem. The percentage of each type was: 24.7%,15.4%, 31.5%, 28.4% for males, and 22.5%, 28.0%, 25.0%, 24.5% for females. The main differencebetween CSRI and the Western inventories was that there were two negative scales involved in CSRI,which are Masculine Subscale and Feminine Subscale, and they can be used to test the degree of socialdesirability. The results of these scales also suggested a multiple model of sex schema.
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    PHENOMENOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SHAME AND GUILT AMONG CHINESE COLLEGE STUDENTS
    Xie Bo, Qian Mingyi(Beijing Univerity,Beijing 100871)
    2000, 32 (01):  105-109. 
    Abstract ( 1082 )  
    Totally 305 college students(159 Ss in the shame group and 146 in the guilt group) were asked torecall a specific shame (in shame group) or guilt(in guilt group) event in their life. And then, aquestionnaire which had 26 phenomenological items were evaluated by all the Ss.The results showedthat: (1) Compared with guilt, when Ss were in the shame situations, they experience more painfulfeelings, and wanted to flee from the situation, had more physical. changes(e. g. blush), tried to avoidtalking about the event, and so on. All of these findings were similar to the Western researchers' results.(2) There were no significant differences between the items related with personal capabilities among theshame and guilt groups, which differed from Westerner's finding. (3) Both shame and guilt could beexperienced in the situations with or without other people. In the last part of the paper, culturalinfluences were discussed by the authors, and some ideas of theories related with shame and guilt werealso discussed finally.
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    POMS FOR USE IN CHINA
    Wang Jianping, Lin Wenjuan(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)Chen Zhonggeng(Beijing University, Beijing 100871)
    2000, 32 (01):  110-114. 
    Abstract ( 1205 )  
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the POMS used in China. 289 cancer patients in fourhospitals were randomly assigned to one of either experimental or control group, measured three times(pre-, on- and post-treatment), and one time for normal people. The major results were:there werehigher levels of homogeneity reliability and clinical validity tested by three ways, in all scales of POMS,especially sensitive to the effect of psychological intervention. But, the discriminant validity of POMSwas not strong, and the sensitivity to the changes of mood states was weaker in normal people than incancer patients. These results supported the POMS as a reliable, responsive, and valid measure of themood states, and a sensitive indicator to psychological intervention of cancer patients in China.
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    STUDY ON RISK PERCEPTION OF MANAGERS IN WORKING SITUATION
    Xie Xiaofei(Dept of Psychology,Beijing University,Beijing 100871)Xu Liancang(Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica,Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (01):  115-120. 
    Abstract ( 842 )  
    Reformation in economic system has continued in recent years and all business is deeply involvedin such reformation. It is obvious that everyone in all organizations with different ownership will beinfluenced by these changes. People will feel competition and crisis in one way or the other. From thepoint of risk perception, we chose to study how managerial personals in the rapidly changing businessrecognized and dealt with some sensitive matters in a real world situation. Here we designed aquestionnaire for risk perception in working situation designed for enterprises. The main results were asfollows:There existed factor groups of high risk. People showed large variation in perceiving risk factors. Italso showed that ownership difference in business influenced the person's view of risk. "Businessbenefit" is the biggest concern to managerial personals and is viewed as the highest risk factor.Moreover, managing strategy in business (aggressive or conservative) is directly related to productivity.
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