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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 32 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE ORTHOGRAPHIC REGULARITY IN SCHOOL CHILDREN
    Li Juan, Fu Xiaolan ,Lin Zhongxian (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 121-126.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 179 )
    The study was to explore the development of Chinese orthographic regularity and the effect of Chinese constructive features on idenhfication of Chinese characters in primary school children. Real characters, pseudo-characters and non-characters with three constructions: left-right up-down, half- encircled were used as stimuli. Subjects were primary school children from grade 1, 3, 5 and undergraduates who were required to judge whether a stimulus was a legal character or not, The results showed: (1) children's knowledge of orthographic regularity developed gradually based on their reading experience. The Chinese orthographic awareness appeared in grade 1, but until glade 5 the level was equivalent with that of the undergraduates; (2) the effect of Chinese constructive features on character identification was only in grade 1 which depended on the reading experience of the subjects, the familiarity of materials and so forth; (3) the conclusions about the appearance of orthographic regularity in each grade and its developmental bend among grades was consistent. However, the constructive features played a prominent role in the development of orthographic regularity after its appearance in every grade: the developmental level of the left-right one was superior to those of the up-down and the half-encircled.
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    THE ROLE OF SEMANTIC TRANSPARENCIES IN THE PROCESSING OF COMPOUND WORDS
    Wang Chunmao (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing 100101) Peng Danling (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal Univrsity, Beijing 100875)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 127-132.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 168 )
    The morpheme repeated prime paradigm was used to probe the mental representation of compound words. The targets were 24 semantic transparent words, 24 opaque words, and 48 nonwords (each consisted of two characters). Five types of primes were used. namely : (1) the targets themselves, (2) the first morphemes of the targets, (3) the second morphemes of the targets, (4) nonwords made of the second and first morphemes of the target words, and (5) morpheme-related nonwords. After a prime showing on the monitor for 100 msec, a target replaced it and lasted for 400 msec. Subjects were instructed to decide whether a target was a word or not as correctly and rapidly as possible. The primes for transparent words were significantly larger than those for opaque ones in the conditions of (2), (3), and (5). The result demonstrated the role of semantic transparency in the mental representation of compound words. It implied that the connection between a transparent word and its morpheme was different from that between an opaque word and its morpheme: the former might be excitatory and the latter inhibitory.
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    CHARACTER PRODUCTION AND RECOGNITION IN CHINESE PROCESSING:A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN POOR READERS AND NORMAL READERS OF FOURTH GRADE
    Meng Xiangzhi, Shu Hua (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875) Zhou Xiaolin (Department of Psychology, Beijing University, Beijing 100871) Luo Xiaohin (Donggaofang Primary School, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100009)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 133-138.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 233 )
    The sameness and differences in Chinese Character production and recognition between poor readers and normal readers were examined in dictation and choice tasks. It was found that the regularity of phonetic parts had influence on the accuracy of character production and recognition; Poor readers produced more orthographically different homophonic characters; Poor readers especially need the help of cues. The data were discussed in relation to theories of lexicon structure and lexical processing of children.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF DEGRADATION LOCATIONS ON DEGRADED CHINESE CHARACTER PROCESSING
    Yu Bolin (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 139-143.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 145 )
    A new method for degrading Chinese characters was generated on the computer. The primary test showed that the method was effective in studying Chinese character processing. Two experiments were conducted for investigating how different degraded locations of a Chinese character influenced the processing. The results indicated that the integration Process of degraded Chinese characters did not depend on the degraded locations. Holishc and local processing problem was discussed according to the results.
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    PHONOLOGICAL ACTIVATION AND REPRESENTATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS (I) ──THE CHARACTER-LEVEL AND SUB-CHARACTER-LEVEL PHONOLOGIES AND THEIR INTERACTION
    Yang Hui, Peng Danling (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875) Charles Perfetti ,Tan Lihai (LRDC, University of Pittsburgh)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 144-151.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 125 )
    One experiment was conducted to probe the following issues: (1). Is the phonological processing in Chinese character identification a multi-level (character level and sub-character level) activation processing? (2). Whether the multi-level phonological processing is general in both high and low frequency character identification, (3). How is the interaction of phonological activation of character level and sub-character level? Using W+, W+ C+, W+ C-, W- C+ and W- C- as primes and naming as task, at 3 kinds of SOA (57ms, 85ms & 143ms), the experiment results showed that at the early stage of character identification, both high and low frequency primes showed priming effect, At 57ms SOA, the primes showed significant priming effect on target identification, and both the whole characters and their phonetics contributed to the priming effects. The interaction between whole characters and their phonetics was determined by their related frequency, and we assumed that the interaction was run by the principles of "whole characters dominating" and "high frequency dominating".
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    THE ROLE OF REPRESENTATION OF THE WHOLE AND THE COMPONENTS IN OBJECT IDENTIFICATION
    He Haidong ,Jiao Shulan, Ding Jinhong (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 152-157.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 149 )
    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of object representation on its identification, especially the relationship between the whole and the components. Experiment one dealt with how the components and the whole impact on the identification of an object The second experiment investigated on the role of relative distances and parting methods in identifying an object. Finally, the representation of objects was studied when they were naturally and non-naturally parted. The results indicated that : (1) when an object was separated into parts, mental operations were used to merge them during identification; (2) the object could be identified through either the components or the whole; (3) representation of different components were independent of each other, an object could be figured out regardless of its familiarity. The objects could be identified if their components and their space relationships were obtained. However, identification of components was not the absolute condition for identifying an object.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COGNITIVE PROFILE, FIELD- INDEPENDENCE AND SPATIAL ORIENTATION IN FLIGHT
    You Xuqun, Yu Lishen (Faculty of Aviation Medicine, Fourth military Medical University, Xi'an 710032) (Institute of Aviation Medicine, Beijing 100036)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 158-163.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 169 )
    The relationship between cognitive profile, field-independence and spatial orientation in flight was examined. 85 experienced pilots were tested with the Cognitive Laterality Battery (CLB) and the Group Embedded Hgures Test (GEFT) to assess their degrees of spatial cognitive profile and field independence, receptively. Meanwhile, the level of flight orientation was also assessed with respect to a fuzzy evaluation model of flight illusion. The results indicated: (l) Both high visuospatial ability and high fieldtindependence were helpful to get an improved flight orientation, as well as the two factors consisted of the best predictor of flight orientation; (2) A high positive conflation was found between typical spatial cognitive Profile and high field--independence. The pilots with high field--independence tended to have a typical spatial cognitive Profile; (3) The scores on the visuospatial tests, CLQ and field--independence lost differed significanhy between three groups in illusion level, respectively. The Pilots with bald--illusion usually had more superiority in processing, organizing visuospatial information and some high metacognitive skills for spatial orientation in flight. The study furthered evidences that there was a strong relationship between visuospatial ability, field--independence and spatial orientation in fight.
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    UTILIZING PHONOLOGICAL CUES IN CHINESE CHARACTERS: A DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY
    Shu Hua, Zhou Xiaolin, Wu Ningning (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875) (Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 164-169.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 157 )
    Phonetic radicals in Chinese characters can provide cues for the pronunciation of whole characters. These cues can be consistent, making all the characters containing a particular radical to be pronounced in the same way. They can also be inconsistent allowing chanaters containing the same radical to be pronounced in different ways. This study investigated school children's awareness of orthographic structure and the use of phonological cues of phonetic radicals. Subjects were asked to judge whether two characters having the same phonetic radical were homophones. In each pair, the first character was a familiar character while the second one was a new character. In guessing the pronunciation of the second character and making judgment children had to be aware of the orthographic structure of the familiar and new characters and use their knowledge about the phonological value of the phonetic radical. It was found that children's judgment was influenced by the consistency of phonetic radicals in providing phonological cues to the whole characters. Pairs containing consistent radicals were less likely to be judged as non-homophones than pairs containing inconsistent radicals. This effect was more pronounced as children were getting older.
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    PHONOLOGICAL ACQUISITION OF PUTONGHUA-SPEAKING CHILDREN
    Li Wei, Zhu Hua ,Barbara Dodd (Department of Speech, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, NEI 7RU, Uk) Jiang Tao, Peng Danling, Shu Hua (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 170-176.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 309 )
    Based on the spontaneous speech dare of 129 Putonghua-speaking children aged 1;6-4;6, the present study had identified the phonological repertoires and typical phonological processes of Putonghua-speaking children of various age groups. The research findings can be applied to larger-scale standardized phonological tests on Putonghua-speaking children. The norms developed in this study can be used for early diagnosis of phonologically-impaired children. By comparing with research findings of other languages such as English and Cantonese, the present study provides further insights into the role of both universal tendencies and the ambient language in phonological acquisition.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PRESCHOOLERS'DEVELOPMENT ON NAIVE THEORY OF BIOLOGY ──AT THE DIMENSION OF GROWTH COGNITIONMTION
    zhu Liqi, Fang Fuxi (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 177-182.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 148 )
    The study examined preschoolers' development on naive theory of biology at the dimension of growth cognition, and also the individual difference and inrta-individual difference. The results showed that: (1) Preschoolers gradually formed naive theory of biology. (2) Children under different educational conditions performed differently on growth cognition; Younger children were more easily influenced by tasks, while the older children had smaller intra-individual differences.
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    CHILDREN'S HUMAN FIGURE DRAWINGS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF SIZE SCALING AND ITS INFLUENTIAL FACTORS
    Wang Zhenlin (Institute of Psychology, CAS, Beijing 100101)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 183-189.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 129 )
    One of the most prominent characteristics of children's human figure drawing is disproportion. Over 300 children aged from 4.5 to 6.5 panicipated in this research. The results showed that the trunk/head ratios of all participants, averaged 1.3, increased from 4.5 to 5.5, then decreased until 6 and increased again on free drawing condition. Due to the relatively stable size of the head, the variation of the ratio was mostly caused by the variation of the size of the trunk, which is deemed pertinent to the cognitive development of body structure. On model drawing condition, the trunk/head ratio was significantly greater than that of free drawing, although the direction of variation was the same except ages of 4.5 to 5. Changing the order of drawing and exaggerating the function of body parts can also affect the ratio.
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    A RESEARCH ON THE JUDGMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF“IMMANENT JUSTICE” AMONG CHILDREN AGED 6-10 IN CHINA
    Liu Junhao (Office Affairs Administration Bureau of shanghai 200003) Cen Guozhen (Department of Applied Psychology, Shanghai Teachers University 200234)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 190-196.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 138 )
    Facing a person's misdeed and the following adversity, children have the characteristics of making "immanent justice" judgment which reflected the person's moral development. This was pointed out by J. Piaget. But R Karniol's study showed different results and put forward a different viewpoint. In this research, having 106 subjects aged 6 to 10 in China. the structure, content and factorial control of the situational stories used as research materials were more thoroughly considered than those of Piaget and Karniol. The results showed that there were four categories of responses to such kind of situations among Chinese children, the nature of these responses were closely related both with moral maturation and with the development of causality reasoning ability. The turnpoint from precausal explanations to mature causal analysis on these situations was at about eight years old among children in China. The influencing factors, such as the structure and content of the situational stories, and the "internal justice", which might be included indistinctly among responses, were also thoroughly discussed.
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    THE MEDIATED INFLUENCE OF ON-LINE SELF-REGULATED LEARNING ACTIVITIES ON THE LEARNING OUTCOMES IN DIFFERENT LEARNING SITUATIONS
    Liu Rude, Chen Qi (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 197-202.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 2444 )
    The mediated influence of on-line self-regulated learning activities of 60 subjects on their learning outcomes in the situations of two kinds of learning goal and two kinds of time pressure was explored. The results showed that there were significant differences in on-line self-regulated learning activities between two kinds of learning task requirements, as well as between two kinds of time pressure. There was no significant difference in the multiple choice test score between the different situations. However, there was significant difference in the writing score between the different situations. Some of the on-line self-regulated learning activities mediated the influence of learning goal requirement and time pressure on the learning outcome.
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    THE EFFECTS OF PREDICTABILITY AND SEMANTIC BIAS IN IDIOM COMPREHENSION
    She Xianjun, Song Ge ,Zhang Biyin (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 203-209.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 114 )
    Two moving window experiments were designed to investigate the effects of predictability and semantic bias in idiom comprehension in different contexts. Experiment one found that literal biased idioms were restrained in figurative context and figurative biased idioms were restrained in literal context. Experiment two found that low predictable idioms were restrained in figurative context and high predictable idioms were restrained in literal context. The results had denied the dead metaphor hypothesis and supported the configuration hypothesis. It was proved that the comprehension of idiom was a compositional process.
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    EFFECTS OF CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ON BEHAVIORAL DISORDER AND HIPPOCAMPAL CA1 NEURONAL DAMAGE INDUCED BY STRESS IN RATS
    Yan Jin ,Lu Changlin, Tang Shuping (Dept. of Neurobiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200234)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 210-216.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 125 )
    Objective The experiment was to investigate into the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on behavioral disorder and hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage induced by stress in rats. Methods The footshock stress-induced changes of behaviors and morphology of hippocampal CA1 neurons during acute or chronic stress in tats, and the effects of CNTF administrated into bilateral hippocampus on the changes were observed with open field test Nissl stain, Bielschowsky-Gros-Lawrentjew stain and electron microscope. Results The open field behaviors increased and morphology of hippocampal CAI neurons did not change during acute stress in rats. The open field behaviors decreased and hippoampal CA1 neuronal damage occurred during chronic stress. CNTF administrated into bilateral hippocampus had no effect on behavior and morphology of hippocampal CA1 neurons in control and acute stressful rats, but it significantly reduced hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage and improved behavioral disorder induced by chronic stress. Conclusion CNTF could improve depressive behavior induced by chronic stress via protection of hippocampal CA1 neurons.
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    COMPARISON OF 15 EQUATING METHODS
    Xie Xiaoqing (Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing 100083)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 217-222.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 221 )
    This is a comparative research of 15 equating methods, 4 based on Classical Testing Theory (CTT) and 11 based on Item Response Theory (IRT), using HSK real data. A relative reliable criterion was established. This research concluded: 1) the equating was not always the best choice; 2) some IRT based equating methods could be used in item bank development; 3) neither one, two or three parameter models, neither ms or mm methods, IRT parameter transfer methods could be used in HSK equating for these methods resulted in significant errors.
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    AN EXPLORATION OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE BY ITEMS:WHAT IS IT?
    Wang Caikang (Department of Psychology, South China Normal Universing Guangzhou 510631)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 224-228.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 329 )
    A deep exploration of Analysis of Variance by Items (ANOVA by items) had been made in this paper, which is very popular in recent years both at home and abroad. The author first proposed that items in an experiment could also be seen as experiment units like subjects. Therefore, two kinds of basic experimental designs could be distinguished theoretically: Between-items design and Within-items design. Accordingly with ANOVA by subjects, ANOVA by items can also be used to the same experiment for data processing based on its experimental design by item. But at the end of this paper the author indicated that it is not always that ANOVA by items could be used for data processing because items in some experiments are constant rather than random variable. Implications of using ANOVA by items for data processing was also discussed.
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    WHAT MAKES FRAMES WORK?
    Li Shu, Fang Yongqing (School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052, Australia Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798) Maria Zhang (Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Hua Nan Women's Colleg
    . 2000, 32 (02): 229-234.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 330 )
    An S-shaped value function and a nonlinear weighing function were employed by the prospect theory to explain and predict the framing effect. The choice behaviour under different frames was however simply seen by the equate-to-differentiate model as a choice between the best possible outcomes or a choice between the worst possible outcomes. A "matching" task was designed to re-test some risky problems which had been demonstrated in the author's previous studies to support or to disprove the documented framing effect. It was shown in the present experiment that knowledge of the frame which was used did not permit prediction of option preference, and that the existing evidence in relation to the framing effect could be better accounted for by the equate-to-differentiate strategy (deciding which dimensional difference is to be equated and which is to be differentiated) revealed by the matching results.
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    DRUG ADDICTION BEHAVIOR AND ITS POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL MECHANISM
    Sui Nan, Chen Jing (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2000, 32 (02): 235-240.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 355 )
    Drug addiction is a time-dependent course during which specific nucleus or cells in the brain adapt to repeated exposure to the drugs. The possible mechanism of addiction is explained basically and biologically by adaptation of cAMP pathway signaling, opioid and DA receptor-G protein coupling, etc. Biological changes from the acute effects of drugs to tolerance, sensitization, dependence and withdrawal syndromes have been revealed by much evidence. But at present it is still one of the greatest challenges to explicate the mechanism of long-term adaptation in specific brain regions.
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