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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 December 1999, Volume 31 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC INFLUENCES ON SIMPLESENTENCE COMPREHENSION IN CHINESE
    Jiang Xin, Jing Qicheng(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    1999, 31 (04):  361-368. 
    Abstract ( 911 )  
    The Present study explored the effects of syntactic cues and semantic cues onsimple sentence comprehension in Chinese. Using an agent judgement task, Theexpriment examined how Chinese readers used syntactic cues (i.e., word order) andsemantic cue (reversibility) in processing simple sentences. The results showed thatboth syntactic and semantic cues played important roles in the processing of Chinese.Using a speeded grammatical judgement task, Expriment 2 showed that syntacticfactor had strong influences on sentence processing, but semantic factor had no significant effect. Furthermore, no interaction between syntactic and semantic factorswas found in these experiments. TIs data pattern suggested that syntactic cue was thedominant factor in sentence Processing, while semantic cue was the secondary factorwhich operated when the task emphasized semantic analysis. These results weredicussed within the syntactic autonomy theory which assumed that syntactic analysis isan autonomous process independent of semantic influence.
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    STUDY ON THE INJFLUENCE OF THE RELATIONSHIP OFTHE WHOLES AND THEIR PARTS IN THE PERCEPTUALSEPARATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Zhang Jijia(South China Normal Universing Guangzhou, 510631)Sheng Hongyan(Yantai Normal University, Yantai, 264025)
    1999, 31 (04):  369-376. 
    Abstract ( 1251 )  
    Using naming techniques, two experiments were conducted to examine the effectof relationship between the wholes and their parts in perceptual separation of Chinesecharacters. Experiment 1 was dedicated tO explore the condition of the radicalsseparated from Chinese characters which consisted of the same radicals. The resultsshowed that the difficulty of separating ladicals from the Chinese character wholeswere affected by the number of the radicals in the wholes, the fewer the radicalsexisted in the wholes, the more difficult separating radicals from the wholes, thetighter the radicals unite. Experiment 2 was carried out to examine the situation ofthe radicals separating from the wholes which consisted of different radicals. Theresults indicated that (1) the difficulty of separating radicals from the wholes wasdecided by the dependence of the wholes to their radicals. In the wholes, the moreimportant the radicals were, the more difficult the radicals separated from their wholes;(2) the positions of the radicals in the wholes also infulunced naming time of theradicals. The authors proposed the concept of "wholistic unite force". Wholistic uniteforce is an index of tighting degree which the parts relate with their wholes, anddecided the difficulty of the parts separating from their wholes. The authors alsosuggested that when we consider the role of the wholes and their parts, we shouldnot only think of the number of the parts but think of the quality of the parts, therelation of the wholes and their parts, the status and role of the parts in the wholes.
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    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE PROPERTIES OF PROCESSINGSUBSYSTEMS IN IMAGE-ROTATION
    You Xuqun(Faculty of Aviation Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian, 710032)Yang Zhiliang(Department of Psychology, East China Normal University, shanghai, 200062)
    1999, 31 (04):  377-382. 
    Abstract ( 890 )  
    The study tried to examine the cognitive plasticity and stability in processingsubsystems of image--rotation. Two experiment were conducted to test processinglevels of imagerotation in twenty pilots, ten elderly adults and their own controlsrespectively. The results indicated that among three main subsystems involved inimage--rotation, there were both a stronger practice effect and age effect that thecormsponding function was either improved with systematic training or decreased withaging in the shift subsystem of image--rotation. In contrast there were little effect ofpractice and age on the function of subsystems concerning shape--encoding andconfirmation in image--rotation. The study suggested that influenced by some hereditaryand intrinsic attributes of the brain's nervous anatomic structure, the shift subsystemshowed a higher cognitive Plasticity and susceptibility, while the property of the othertWo subsystems, however, relatively showed a cognitive stability of lower Plashcity.The implication was further discussed from the high--level visual processing theorydeveloped by Kosslyn.
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    EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF HIERARCHICAL NETWORKMODEL OF TEMPORAL MEMORY
    Wang Zhenyong, Li Honghan, Huang Xiting(Department of Psychology, southwest China Normal Universing, Chongqing, 400715)
    1999, 31 (04):  383-389. 
    Abstract ( 868 )  
    In this research we direcdy tested the hypothesis of hierarchical network model oftemporal memory by means of categorical material by which tempoal chunks can beformed from the distinct clusters. Throughout the test we adopted RT and correctrate to judge temporal succession, and reproduction and cral estimation to estimatetempotal duration. The results indicated that not only there existod hierarchicalnetwork somewhat with the characterishcs of temporal information memory, but therealso existed some of linear construction.
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    QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF THE DEFICIENCYIN HUMAN COLOR VISION
    Sun Pei, Han Buxin, Sun Xiuru(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing, 100101)Zeng Xiaodong(National Institute of Metrology Beijing, 100013)He Jichang(The Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School MA02114 USA)
    1999, 31 (04):  390-396. 
    Abstract ( 799 )  
    Human color vision can be measured quantitatively using the Rayleigh colormatch method. Here we reported the primary measure results of 20 normal and 30abnormal color vision subjects by using thes method. The results showed that therewere significant differences between the normal and abnormal color vision subjects inboth the Rayleigh match midpoint and match range measurements.
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    A STUDY OF HYPOTHESIS-TESTING STRATEGIESOF DISJUNCTIVE CONCEPTS
    Zhang Qinglin, Si Jiwei(Department of Psychology, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing, 400715)
    1999, 31 (04):  397-404. 
    Abstract ( 985 )  
    With material of artificial concept designed by Bruner et al (1956) we testedhypothesis--testing strategies in forming conjunctive and disjunctive concepts withundergraduate students. The results showed that undergraduates tended to usesingle-dimesion testing strategy (including single--dimesion --changing strategy andsingle--dimesion-positive strategy ), and the strategy facilitated tated conjuction task solvingand within--dimention disjunction task solving, but not inter--dimention disjunction tasksolving.
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    CUE--RESPONSE COMPATIBILITY AND THE EFFECT OFTHE CUES PROBABILITY
    Zhang Kan, Liu Yanfang(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    1999, 31 (04):  405-410. 
    Abstract ( 814 )  
    The effect of compatibility between cue and response were investigared within aprecueing paradigm. The results showed that the compatibility effects appeared whenthe cues and the responses were dimensionally overlapped, the effect was affected bythe probability of the cues. The dimension overlap model was tested in the cuecompatibility.
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    EFFECTS OF S--R COMPATIBILITY AND RESPONSECOMPLEXITY ON RESPONSE SELECTION ANDRESPONSE PROGRAMMING PROCESS
    Mou Weimin, Zhang Kan, Guo Sumei(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    1999, 31 (04):  411-417. 
    Abstract ( 702 )  
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S SOCIALPERSPECTIVE-TAKING AND ITS RELATIONTO THEIR PEER INTERACTIONS
    Zhang Wenxin(Shandong Teachers' University, Jinan, 250014)Lin Chongde(Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875)
    1999, 31 (04):  418-427. 
    Abstract ( 1367 )  
    Standardized social perpspective taking stories were used as measures to determinethe social perspective--taking ability of children respectively from the top class ofkindergarden and grade 2, 4 and 6 of elementary school. Children's experience ofpeer social interactions was measured via videotaping observation for the kindergardenchildren and Peer assessment for the elementary school children. The main purposesof the present study were focused on the development of children's social perspectivetaking, and its relation to their social experience of peer interactions. The resultindicated: (1) The 6--years olds still had diffculties in their social perspective taking,while the fourth graders of elementary schools (about 10 years old) could makecorrect inference of other's perspectives using the story information. Childrenexperienced a rapid growth in their social perspective--taking ability from age 6 to 10.(2) No gender differences were found in children's social perspective--taking ability. (3)Children's social perspective-taking ability was closely related to their experience ofpeer interactions Children's peer interaction had a positive effect on the developmentof their social perspective--taking ability, and the isolated children extremely lacking ofexperience of peer interactions lagged behind their highly sociable peers in thedevelopment of social perspective--taking.
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    GENDER DIFFERENCES FROM THE RESULT OF CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY ON TECIINICAL CREATIVITY OFCHILDREN FROM CCINA AND GERMANY
    Shi Jiannong, Xu Fan ,Zhou Lin, Zha Zixiu(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    1999, 31 (04):  428-434. 
    Abstract ( 1075 )  
    In the present paper, the results of the cross--cultural study on techinical creativityof children from China and Germany were analysed, and the issues on genderdifferences in the field of mathematics and natural sciences which are intoresting topsychologists in the field of research on individual differences were discussed. Theresults showed that (1) even though there were no significant gender differences increative thinking, neither in Chinese children nor in German children, and neither insupernormal children nor in normal children, the males were superior to the femalesin mental folding; (2) there were significant gender differences in learning motivationand technical problem comprehension and activities in science. The performances ofmale students were better than that of female students.
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    ACADEMIC HELP--SEEKING: ITS RELATION TO SELFEFFICACY, VALUE, CLASSROOM CONTEXTAND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
    Li Xiaodong(Department of Psychology, North--East Normal University, Changchun, 130024)Cheung Ping Chung(Department of Educational Psychology, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
    1999, 31 (04):  435-443. 
    Abstract ( 1175 )  
    The present study investigated into the relationship between self--efficacy, value,classroom context academic achievement and academic help-seeking. One hundredand thirty--five eighth graders of a middle school responded to a questionnaire. Theresult showed that: (1) Self--efficacy was positively related to benefits of help-seekingand instrumental help--seeking, but negatively related to costs of help--seeking,executive help-seeking and avoidance of help--seeking. (2) Value was positively relatedto benefits of help--seeking and instrumental help--seeking, but negatively related tocosts of help--seeking, executive help--seeking and avoidance of help-seeking.(3) Aclassroom context which supported help--seeking was positively related to instrumentalhelp--seeking, but negatively related to threat from toachers and avoidance ofhelp-seeking; a classroom context which inhibited help--seeking was positively relatedto costs of help--Seeking, executive help--seeking and avoidance of help-seelking, butnegatively related to benefits of help--seeking and instrumental help--seeking. (4)Academic achievement was positively related to benefits of help-seeking andinstrumental help-seeking, but negatively related to costs of help--seeking, executivehelp--seeking and avoidance of help--seeking. (5) Self-efficacy, value, classroomcontext and academic achievement had important influence on help-seeking attitudes.(6) Attitudes, value, classroom context and academic achievement had importantinfluence on help--seeking behaviors.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEENEXAMPLE AND TRANSFER OF OPERATION-PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE
    Ren Jie(Scientific Research Office, Education Bureau Of Guangdong Povince, Guangzhou, 510035)Mo Lei(Psychology Department, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631)
    1999, 31 (04):  444-450. 
    Abstract ( 905 )  
    It was proposed that knowledge type was a prerequisite to transfer study ofprocedural knowledge. Procedural knowledge could be divided into association-procedural and operation--procedural knowledge. This report was conducted toinvestigate the relationship between example and transfer of operation--proceduralknowledge. The results showed: (1) Examples had an important effect on the transferof operation-procedural knowledge. (2) Differences existed between association-procedural and operation-procedural knowledge transfer.
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    CONSISTENT MODEL OF REGRET: THEORY AND SUPPORT
    Zhang Jiehai(Sociology Institute, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences,Shanghai, 200020)
    1999, 31 (04):  451-459. 
    Abstract ( 929 )  
    This paper reexmined Gilovich and Medvec's temporal pattern to the experienceof regret(1994)which argued, as opposed to what research on counterfactual thinkingshowed, that people's biggest regrets in real life involve more inaction instead ofaction. It was found that the theoretical contradiction arose from the difference betweenGilovich and Medvec's interpretation of action/inaction and the original assumptions.Using a new typology, the author found that like short--term regrets, at least half ofthe long--term regrets stem from changes of state (actions), and proposed consistentmodel of regret on the basis of his support, arguing that like short--term regret, longterm regret obeys the "change of state--status quo" pattern.
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    DETECTION OF DIFFERENTIAL ITEM FUNCTIONING IN ACHINESE VOCABULARY TEST
    Cao Yiwei(Shenzhen University Normal College, shenzhen, 518060)Zhang Houcan(Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875)
    1999, 31 (04):  460-467. 
    Abstract ( 1157 )  
    This study used two different differential item functioning (DIF) detection methodsin a Chinese vocabulary test. The DIF was analyzed for female--male and suburbsmetropolis groups.The sample consisted of 1409 grade 9 juniors from Beijing suburbsand Shenzhen metropolis.The 7 items were detected triform DIF in the results offemale-male group, while 5 items were uniform DIF and 2 items were nonuniformDIF in the suburbs-metropolis groups.Several plausible factors for DIF.were discussed.
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    SOME FOREIGN RESEARCHING RESULTS ON PROSODY ANDPROMINENCE AS ONE OF ITS VARIABLES
    Zhong Xiaobo ,Yang Yufang(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    1999, 31 (04):  468-475. 
    Abstract ( 754 )  
    This whole reviewed the main foreign researching results in recent years onprosody in which prominence is included. The summary was divided into two parts:(1) prosody and its implications; (2) researches on prominence. The latter was givena more detailed discussion which, in turn, was divided into three parts: the phoneticcues of prominence, the implications of prominence and the relationships betweenprominence and other prosodic valiables.
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