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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 September 2000, Volume 32 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    FOK: CUE-FAMILIARITY, OR TARGET-RETRIEVABILITY?
    Yang Zhiliang(Psychology Departent, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062)Du Jianzheng(Institate of Prychology, Chinese Academp of Sciences, Beijing 10010l)
    2000, 32 (03):  241-246. 
    Abstract ( 806 )  
    The present study, using the formulas fOr weiqi, tested the cue-familiarity hypothesis and the targetretrievability hypothesis of FOK The result showed trhat when cues are available, subjectS made their FOK judgments according to cueboliarity, and when there was no cue available, subjects made their judgments according to the panial information of the target. The present paper gives some suggestions on the method for FOK study.
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    A STUDY ON THE RESOLUTION OF LEXICAL AMBIGUITY OF TWO-SYLLABLE HOMOPHONES IN CHINESE
    Shu Hua, Tang Yinghong(Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)Zhang Yaxu(Department of Psychology, Beijing University, Beijing 100871)
    2000, 32 (03):  247-252. 
    Abstract ( 1081 )  
    Cross-modal semantic priming paradigm and lexical decision task were employed to investigate the processes of meaning access of two-syllable homophones in Chinese. The homophones were presented isolatedly in Experiment One and in sentences in Experiement Two. The results showed: First in the isolatedly-presenting condition, regardless of the inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) between auditory primes and visual probes, same facilitation effects were observed for two types of probes, which were related to either the dominant or the subordinate meaning of homophones. Second, in the 0-msec ISI condition,the same priming effects were found for the two types of probes if only sentence context was consistent with the corresponding meanings of homophones. Third, in the - 150-msec ISl condition, priming effect was found only when the probe was related to the dominant meaning of homophone and the sentence context was consistent with this meaning.
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    RESEARCH ON REPRESENTATION FEATURES OF COLOR,SHAPE AND TEXTURE OF PICTURES
    Ding Jinhong(Department of Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100089)Lin Zhongxian(Institute of Psychology , Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (03):  253-257. 
    Abstract ( 869 )  
    Information can be represented both conceptually and imaginarily in memory. It is evident that the shape and color can be represented separately in memory. Further research is needed on whether features are represented separately or not, such as color and texture, texture and shape etc. Two experiments were conducted to investigate separable representation of texture and shape, texture and color.The results indicated that texture could be represented separately with color and shape respectively. It suggested that different features might be processed in different ways during remembering. Another interesting finding is that recognition performance for shape, color and texture were quite different.For shape it is highest,for color it is lowest and for texture it is between both of them.
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    EFFECTS OF DIVIDED ATTENTION ON PERCEPTUAL GROUPING PROCESSES IN SHORT-TERM MEMORY
    Bao Yan, Wang Su(Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    2000, 32 (03):  258-263. 
    Abstract ( 1044 )  
    College students were tested with a dual task tecnique to examine the effects of divided attention (DA) at encoding or retrieval on perceptual grouping processes in short-term memory. The results showed that memory performance of perceptually grouoed lists were significantly better than that of ungrouped lists under full attention in both free recall and serial recall, indicating a perceptual grouping effect. DA at encoding disrupted mis effect in both free recall and serial recall, by contrast, DA at retrieval disrupted it in serial recall alone, leaving it unaffected in free recall, revealing different characteristics in free recall and serial recall. The authors assumed that perceptual grouping processes in short-term memory occurred at both encoding and retrieval phases, and the encoding phase is the primary one which demands relatively more attentional resources.
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    SENSIBILITY AND RESPONSE BIAS OF WORDS AND PICTURES IN FEELING-OF-KNOWING
    Li Tonggui(Department of Psychology, Beijing University Beijing 100871)
    2000, 32 (03):  264-268. 
    Abstract ( 953 )  
    The experiment explored the sensibility and response bias of words and pictures in Feeling-of-Knowing task. The Recall- Judgement Recognition paradigm recommended by Hart was used, and there were pictures or words as stimuli, and two levels of processing were manipulated, this task was like confidence rating method of Signal Detect Theory (SDT)U. The data were analyzed in terms of SDT.The results suggested that there was no significant difference on sensibility between words and pictures,no matter whether LOP was shallow or deep, but their β values were varied differetly and affected by the level of processing.
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    A STUDY ON INTER-INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT ABILITY OF ADEQUATE CONDITIONAL SYLLOGISTIC REASONING IN 12 YEAR-OLDS
    Fang Fuxi, Tang Hong(Institute of Psychology, CAS Beijing 100101)Liu Pengzhi(Middle School Attached to the People's University of China, Beijing 100086)
    2000, 32 (03):  269-275. 
    Abstract ( 1228 )  
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inter-individual differences for the developmental ability of adequate conditional syllogistic reasoning in 12 year-olds. The samples were randomly stratified according to the academic achievements of mathematics. The subjects were in total 40 school children divided into two groups : High ability group of math and general ability group of math with equal number of subjects.The subjects were individually tested with three types of tasks of syllogistic reasoning with verbal materials. Type 1 task referred an experimental context available to all school children; Type 2 task was based on a counterintuitive statement beyond concrete experiences; Type 3 task included abstractly a symbolized content. The results showed that four categories of subjects corresponding to four different levels of syllogistic reasoning were identified in terms of the statistical analysis for the verbal performances of the subjects. The subjects of the general ability group spread out on those four levels,which indicated that their ability of syllogistic reasoning was frequently constrained by the concrete contexts of the tasks, their pefformances could not free themselves from the perceptual experiences.However, the subjects of the high ability group were convergent to the highest level which was characterized by mature formal operational minking, the ability of assumed thinking in coordination with the ability of deductive reasoning were fully developed. The 'forms' liberated from the contexts. The ability of syllogistic reasoning correlated with the mathematical achievement and the levels of intelligence.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND SOME COGNITIVE PERFORMANCES IN ADULTS
    Xu Shulian, Wu Zhiping ,Wu Zhenyun, Sun Changhua(Institule of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (03):  276-281. 
    Abstract ( 1040 )  
    120 adult subjectS 20-85yrs of age (forming 4 groups) were used for studying the relationship between NEO-FFI and cognitive performances (memory, problem solving and reaction time of visual search), the difficulty degree of the performances were low or moderate. The results showed: (1) E score was negatively related to (or negative predictors of ) name recall and picture recognition, O score was positively relatod to (or positive predictors of ) name recall and the percentage of using strategy for guessing the pictures. (2) By controlling the age factor, partial correlation of NEO-FFI with cognitive performances indicated: N score and using strategy for guessing the pictures, E score and picture recognition, name recall, C score and digit, alphabet or Han character search reaction time, all correlated negatively. (3) With the cognitive indices and the personal variables as independent variables,the stepwise regression showed, number of putting scheme on problem solving had forecast relation to E score negatively, however, the variables relating psychological status, such as mood, status of matriage,satisfaction of family and so on were more intermlated with personality traits. (4) The results within the four age groups were different. The relationships between cognitive performances and NEO-FFI in the young adult group and old-old adult group were closer than that of the other two age groups. It might be related to the difference in aging processes of neural system function in different age groups.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF THE AWARENESS OF THE ISOMORPHIC PROBLEMS ON GEOMETRY PROBLEM-SOLVING TRANSFER
    Yang Weixing(Liaocheng Normal University, Liaocheng 252059)Zhang Meiling(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (03):  282-286. 
    Abstract ( 941 )  
    The influence of the difficulty of the target problem namely the related isomorphic problems which have some surfase similarity, and the awareness of the related problems of solvers had been examined by experimental research. Results suggested that during the process of geometry problem solving, the level of awareness of related problems is one of the major factors that influence the effect of problem-solving transfer. Either more difficult or easier the transfer problem will hinder the influence of awareness of related problems during problem-solving transfer, even the achievements of the problem solvers will show floor effect or ceiling effect, and the degree of difficulty of the transfer problems have interctions with the level of awareness of related problems in affecting problem-solving transfer.
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    THE CAUSE OF MISTAKES IN SOLVING REFERENT UNKNOWN COMPARE PROBLEMS
    Zhou Xinlin, Zhang Meiling(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (03):  287-291. 
    Abstract ( 749 )  
    Students tend to make some mistakes when solving referent unknown compare problems. At present,people explained this phenomenon mainly from the aspects of relational transferring and keyword strategy.This article proposed concept-driving hypothesis, which means related background knowledge achvated by information presented in the text of problems can influence the representation of problems. Four experiments were made upon this hypothesis. The main results were: (1) Students constructed compared quality unknown problems mainly or firstly in the talk of constructing word problems, (2) The different orders of solving compared quality unknown problems and referent unknown problems had different interference between them; (3) The level of processing data would influence the way of concept-driving.In the end of this anicle, the authors discussed about the implication of this research on instruction.
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    THE INVOLVEMENT OF PRENATAL GLUCOCORTICOID SYSTEM ON MEMORY RETENTION OF CHICKS IMPROVED BY LIGHT EXPOSURE
    Hu Jiafen, Kuang Peizi, Guan Linchu ,Sui Nan(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (03):  292-295. 
    Abstract ( 898 )  
    The effect of two kinds of corticosleroids: corticosterone and dexamthesone on memory retention of dark hatched chicks and corticosteroid receptor antagonist RU- 486 and Spironolactone on memory retention improved by light exposure or corticostorone were examined using one-trial passive avoidance model in chicks. It showed that corticosterone and dexamthesone markedly improved memory retention of dark hatched chicks respectively. RU-486 and Spironolactone blocked memory retention improved by light exposure or corticosterone administration in chicks. But the effect of glucocorticoid receptor was specific, however minerocorticoid mainly affected the general state of the chicks. Thus, glucocorticoid and its receptors were involved in effect of light exposure on memory in chicks.
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    THE EFFECTS OF LOW DOSE MORPHINE ON LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITIES IN RATS
    Chen Jing ,Hu Jiafen, Deng Mintian , Yang Xiaoyan, Sui Nan(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    2000, 32 (03):  296-300. 
    Abstract ( 1123 )  
    The locomotor achvities (LA) of rats were tested every 15 mins for 95 mins after morphine injected intraperitoneally with 8, 4, 2, 1mg/kg/day respectively once a day during the 8-day experiment,and the number of squares (10 X 10 cm2) which the rats passed by in 5 mins were recorded. Results showed that there were significant differences between the groups treared with 8 or 4mg/ kg / day of morphine and normal saline on day2-8, and between the groups with 2mg/kg/day of morphine and the control group on day2, 5 and 6. Thus 4mg / kg / day was the most suitable low dose of morphine for activating LA. The peak effect of 4mg/kg/day of morphine was at 15-20 mins after injection, and it kept going up for 8 days. It was suggested that low dose of morphine may be more stutable for related behavioral effects such as those of conditioned place preference or self-administration, and the best time course for training tasks may be within 20 min after the rats were exposed to morphine.
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    EFFECT OF DIFFERENT BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL ON EXPLORING BEHAVIOR, LEARNING AND MEMORY IN STZ INDUCED KM MICE
    Cai Weixiong, Yao Shuqiao ,Dai Xiaoyang ,Wu Daxing(Clinic Psychology Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Hunan Medical University, Changsha 410011)
    2000, 32 (03):  301-305. 
    Abstract ( 991 )  
    To investigate the effect of different blood glucose level on exploring behavior, leaming and memory in STZ induce KM mice, we selected sixty STZ Ance and assigned them to three groups according to their blood glucose levels, then determined their delaying time and exploring time, the step down test was also executed. We found that the high blood glucose level group showed significantly worse explore behavior and lerning ability but better memory retain ability. No difference was found between the good blood glucose level group and the control group. These resultS suggested that the blood glucose levels affected the exploring behavior and learning and memory in STZ induced KM mice.
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    THE EFFECTS OF LESIONS TO THE BASAL GANGLIA ON PERCEPTUAL PRIMING: FURTHER STUDY
    Wang Changsheng(Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)Yu Shengyuan(Department of Neurology, China People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing 100853)Li Enzhong(MRI Department, The Capital Steel Group Hospital, Beijing 100802)
    2000, 32 (03):  306-310. 
    Abstract ( 1229 )  
    The cognitive and memory functions of the basal ganglia have been the focus of contemporary cognitive neuroscience researches. It is posited that the basal ganglia mediate perceptual priming by Wang CS et al. (ACPA, 1998, 30(4):423-430) based on their findings on one patient with right basal ganglia damage. The present study tested two neurological patients with lesions to the basal ganglia (one ascompanying bilatera hippocampus damage and the other right thalamus damage) and matched controls to further explore the effects of lesions to the basal ganglia on priming performance. It was found that the two patients impaired seriously on perceptual priming task as compared with controls whereas almost at the same level as the controls' on semantic priming tasks. The results suggested that the lesions to the basal ganglia lead to perceptual priming impairment because previous studies had demonstrated that priming was independent of hippocampus or thalamus. It is further confirmed Wang CS et al. 's suggestion that the basal ganglia mediate or participate perceptual priming have no effect on semantic primng.
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    PATH MODEL OF SPECIFIC TRUST AND GENERAL TRUST IN INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR
    Zhang Jianxin(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)Fanny Cheung, K.Leung(Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong)
    2000, 32 (03):  311-316. 
    Abstract ( 1133 )  
    The study proposed a theoretical model of trusting behavior. The model incorporates the constructs of genera trust, specific trust, and perceived trustworthiness of a target person, and explored their effects ontrUShng behavior- Path analysis in LISREL is conducted on a samPle of 223 workers with an average age of 24. Various indexes of goodnss of fit indicated congruence between the model and the dare collected in the study. The model was tested against the three scenario of interpersonal interaction, involving one's elder sister, neighbor, and a stranger on the street. The major parts of the model were confirmed, while some minor modrification was needed. The modified models mainly showed: a. Specific trust plays a key role in all three situations, b. general trust has effect on trusting behavior only in the situations involving a neighbor and a stranger, c. the less frequent interaction with a target person, the more psychological resources are necessary in motivating people to trust the target person.
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    DEVELOPMENT OF THE REVISED EYSENCK PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE SHORT SCALE FOR CHINESE (EPQ-RSC)
    Qian Mingyi , Wu Guocheng , Zhu Rongchun, Zhang Shen( Department of Psychology, Beijing University, Beijing 100871)( Aeronautical Medical Institute of Chinese Air Force, Beijing 100036)
    2000, 32 (03):  317-323. 
    Abstract ( 3491 )  
    EPQ-R Short Scale was first imported and revised in China in this research. 8637 participants (including 7725 panicipants of the Han Ethnicity) from 56 regions of 30 provinces in the mainiand filled in EPQ-RSC (Sampling Version). Based on the data of the large sample, EPQ-RSC was revised,which contained 4 scales and each included 12 items which keeps the identical format with the EPQ-R Short Scale. Statishcal results showed that EPQ-RSC had satisfactory reliability and validity of Scale E,N and L, and relatively lower reliability and validity of Scale P which can still meet the accepted criteria. The excellent psychometrical property of EPQ-RSC renders the EPQ-RSC as a comparable reliable personality test to EPQ-R Short Scale and dependable to be applied to test the personality dimensions of Chinese. Finally the author discussed some issues including reasons about the accepted reliability of Scale P and implications of the norm of Chinese population with age group distributions identical to national population.
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    THE VALIDITY ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE VERSION MBTI
    Miao Danmin, Huangfu En(Department of Psychology, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032)Rosina C. Chia Ren Jianjun(East Carolina University, USA )
    2000, 32 (03):  324-331. 
    Abstract ( 2639 )  
    Objective: To investigate into the content validity, the criterion referent validity and the construct validity of the Chinese version MBTI. Methods : 2123 students, averaging 21.3 in age, took part in the revised Chinese version MBTI-G test. Such tests as EPQ, 16PF MMPI-2 and A-Type were taken as criteria. Results: (1) Experts' evaluation, cormlation analysis between Chinese and English versions, self assessment leaders' assessment and reliability showed that the Chinese version MBTI had a good content validity. (2) Criterion validity study showed that: Generally, EI was apparent; S Type showed gentle, practical, careful traits; N Type was characterized by competitiveness, venturesomeness,decisiveness and meditim A type; T Type showed placid, decisive, calm, self-disciplined, competitive and responsible traits; J Type presented as sociability and high socialization, strong sense of responsibility, planning, persistency, good adaptability in the new environment and strong sense of achievement. These findings were consistent with the original design of MBTI and researches abroad. (3)Factor analysis for 97 items showed that the maximuxn loading that fell on prime factors was 82.8% on average, secondary loading 11.0%. Factor analysis was beyond anhcipation on only 6 items. (4)Correlations existed between revised MBTI personality type test and PM leadership behavior type test;PLA elementary conunanders presented mainly with ESFJ, ISTJ personality types. Conclusion: Chinese version MBTI has high content validity, criterion referent validity and constrUct validity.
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    THE EFFECTS OF VALUES ORIENTATION ON GROUP COOPERATION IN SOCIAL DILEMMAS
    Yan Jin, Wang Zhongming(School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)
    2000, 32 (03):  332-336. 
    Abstract ( 906 )  
    This study used social dilemmas and computer simulation to examine the effects of values orientation on group cooperative behavior. Sixty-two students took part in the experiment. The results showed: (1)Value orientation influenced group cooperative behavior significantly. Cooperative- oriented members tended to cooperate with the partners. (2) Group cooperation behaviors were affected by the partner's strategies in games. The corresponding strategy effectively elicited cooperation on the whole. (3) The interaction between values and strategies had marginal effects on group cooperative behavior.
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    THE GLOBAL PRECEDENCE IN VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING
    Han Shihul(Beijing Lab of Cognitive Science, Graduate School (Beijing), University of Science and Technology of China, Beijng 100039)
    2000, 32 (03):  337-347. 
    Abstract ( 1032 )  
    This paper reviewed the theories of global precedence in visual perception, the underiyingmechanisms, and the related difficulties confronting with these theories. In particular, this paperintroduced the author's recent behavioural and eventrelated potenhal studies of the global precedence,and a new model of global precedence based on interaction between perceptual grouping and selective attention.
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    I CHING AND CHINESE CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Shen Heyong, Gao Lan(Department of Psychology , South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631)
    2000, 32 (03):  348-352. 
    Abstract ( 1149 )  
    In traditional Chinese culture, I Ching has been called the "top of all classics", and "the origin of the Great Dao". Psychology historians today take China as the first homeland of psychology. Theyrealize that in traditional Chinese culture rich psychological thoughts and special psychological system are embraced. Therefore, we will take I Ching as the foundation, through analyzing the charater "heart"(Xin) in the I Ching, the meaning of the Chinese character heart in the Great Commentaries, and the symbolic meaning of heart in the hexagrams, to elaborate the meaning of Chinese Cultural Psychology,and its influence to contemporary Westem psychology.
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    STUDY ON ADMINISTRATION PSYCHOLOGY THOUGHTS IN SUN ZI TACTICS
    Guo Ziyi(Guizhou Nationality College, Guiyang 550025)
    2000, 32 (03):  353-357. 
    Abstract ( 914 )  
    The four aspects of administrahon-psychology thoughts in Sun B Tactics are explored emphatically,which are humanism, encouragement group-psychology thoughts and leadership-psychology thoughts.The application of these four aspects in modern drinistration was also discussed in the present thesis.
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