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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 32 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    EFFECT OF DIVIDED ATTENTION AT DIFFERENT PHASE OF TASK ON THE INHIBITION OF RETURN
    Wang Su Chen Sufen (Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 361-367.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 146 )
    Two experiments on inhibition of return(IOR) were conducted using cue-target method with dual task. Simple distraction stimuli were used in the first experiment and complex ones in the second. They were given separately in cue-presentation Phase or / and target-presentation phase in both experiments. College students were tested. Their primary task was to detect the sign a * which appeared in either peripheral box and press corresponding key as soon as they caught the sign. The results showed: (1) There was still an IOR effect in the condition of simple distraction task, but the value of IOR decreased; yet IOR completely disappeared in the condition of complex distraction task. (2) The divided attention at different phase of the task had no difference in its effect on IOR The authors suggested that the results didn't support the attention-inhibited hypothesis and response-inhibited hypothesis. A new hypothesis was proposed that IOR may come from some kind of link between the activated perceptual representation and response.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNAL-EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL AND IMPLICIT/EXPLICIT MEMORY
    Guo Liping (Department of Psychology, East China Normal University Shanghai 200062)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 368-373.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 233 )
    Employing process dissociation procedure, the present study investigated the relationship between internal-external locus of control and implicit/explicit memory using specific pictures and abstract pictures as materials. The results revealed that internals had higher recollection scores on both specific and abstract pictures than did externals, but externals had higher automaticity scores on abstract pictures than did internals. The results indicated that individual difference of locus of control exhibited difference both on explicit and implicit memory.
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    STUDIES ON THE MECHANISM OF IMPLICIT LEARNING OF SEQUENCE POSITIONS
    Zhang Wei (Department of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 374-380.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 277 )
    Implicit learning, after implicit memory, is becoming one of the most important research topics in the current field of cognition and learning. Using serial reaction time (SRT) paradigm, we conducted two experiments to study the mechanism of implicit learning of sequence positions. The results showed: (1) In the serial reaction time task, with the lengthening of response-stimulus interval (RST), the amount of implicit learning decreased. (2) Subjects' implicit learning score of isomorphic transfer group was almost the same with that of nonisomorphic transfer group, the subjects could not implicitly acquire the underlying abstract pattern of sequence locations. These indicated that implicit learning of sequence positions mainly depended on horizontal associations of events, not vertical associations.
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    RECOGNIZING-TYPE EXPERIMENTAL SCHEDULE OF PDP AND DISCRIMINABILITY OF STIMULUS RESOURCE
    Gao Xiangping (Educational Science Institution, Shanghai Teachers' University, Shanghai 200234)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 381-386.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 75 )
    This paper suggested that distinct from different experimental schedules, a further classification of priming-type and recognising-type should be made on the most characteristic processing dissociation model (PDP). Two experiments had been made on purpose to examine the roles of discriminability of stimulus resource on the recoginsing-type experimental schedule. And also to examine some variables' (stimulus materials, attention levels and processing levels, etc.) influence upon the corrected hit probability of stimulus items in the word list 1. The result showed: Both familiarity and discriminability of stimulus resolute determined the subjects response to the exclusive examination. The use of Chinese characters as stimulus material made no difference to the experimental results.
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    EFFECTS OF PRESENTATION MODE, SELF-EFFICACY AND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION ON FOK JUDGEMENT
    Zhang Meng (Department of Psychology, Yantai Teachers College, Yantai 264025) Zhang Jijia (Department of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631) Zhang Quanxin (Department of Education, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 387-392.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 371 )
    Using college students as subjects and English-Chinese paired words as experimental meterials, the influence of presentation mode, self-efficacy and achievement motivation on FOK judgement were investigated. The major findings are as follows : (1) Presentation mode, self-efficacy and achievement motivation all influenced the grace and accuracy of FOK judgement significantly; (2) As far as the degree of influence was considered, presentation mode was the most next was self-efficacy, achievement motivation was the last; (3) A remarkable interaction existed between self-efficacy and achievement motivation; (4) There was notable positive correlation between recall Performance and accuracy of FOK judgement this suggested that metamemory correlated with object memory.
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    SURFACE COLOR DISCRIMINATION OF ACHROMATIC COLOR IN CONGENITAL RED-GREEN COLOR-VISION ABNORMAL PEOPLE
    Chi Haihong (Shijiazhuang Municipal Personnel Bureau of Hebei Province, Shijizhuang, 050011) Sun Xiuru Xu Zonghui (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 393-398.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 116 )
    This research was on surface color discrimination of achromatic color in congenital red-green color- vision abnormal people. The results showed that The △E of congenital red-green abnormal people varied with the changes of the grade of visual evaluation, there were certain differences in surface color discrimination of achromatic color between congenital red-green abnormal people and normal people; the changes of upper limit and lower limit of the same brightness grade had effect on surface color discrimination of congenital red-green abnormal people, the effect was concerned with brightness grades.
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    THE EFFECTS OF STORY LINES ON THE USE OF PRINCIPLES
    Mo Lei Tang Xuefeng (South China Normal University Guangzhou 510631)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 399-408.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 129 )
    The effects of the similarity of examples and test items in the story lines on the use of principles were studied. In experiment 1, by extending the different degree of the story line between the example and the test item used by Ross, the effect of the story line on the use of the principle was explored. In experiment 2, by making the story type of the story line of the test item different from the example, the effect of the story line on the use of principle was explored. In Experiment 3, the effect of the story line on the use of principle was further explored in the circumstance in which the story line of the example was contrary to that of the test item. The within-subjects design was used. Having studied the principle with its example, the subjects were asked to solve the test item which had different similar relation with the example in the story line. The results showed: 1. The story lines of examples and test items had an effect on the use of principles. When the story lines of both were obviously different especially when the difference came from the story type, the similarity of the story line between both had a significant influence on the use of principle. 2. The effects of the story lines of examples and tests on the use of principles were influenced by the aspects of the object correspondence between both. When the object correspondence was similar, the similarity in the story line would promote the use of the principle. But when the object correspondence was reversed, the similarity in the story line would interfere in the use of principle. According to these results, the opinion is that the similarities of examples and test items in the story lines influenced not only the access of principles but also its use. The conclusion drawn by Ross that the similarities of story lines of examples and tests had no effect on the use of principle should be revised.
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    AN EXPERIMENT ON THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRANSITIONAL LEARNERS OF MATHEMATICS EQUIVALENCE'S CONCEPT ACQUISITION
    Wang Pei (Academy of Educational Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 409-415.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 95 )
    Generally speaking transitional learners of the mathematics equivalence's concept acquisition tend to use one single correct strategy to solve simple problems; whereas they use several different incorrect strategies to solve more difficult problems. After accepting expert instruction, they could acquire the concept very easily and use one single correct adequate strategy to the whole problem. Moreover, "Gesture-Speech Mismatch" seemed not to be one of their essential cognitive characters.
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    EFFECT OF AIRBORNE SOUND ON FETAL BREATHING AND MOVEMENT
    Xu Fen (Institute for the study and Promotion of Mental Health, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875) L. S.Pang B. S. Xisilevsky (School of Nursing, Queens' University, Canada)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 416-421.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 143 )
    The present study is a retrospective review and coding of the videotapes of 49 fetuses at different gestational age. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in fetal breathing movement over gestational age in response to airborne sound stimulation. The result showed that the changes in fetal breathing and body movements were modulated by sensory stimulation. And there were differences in changes of breathing and body movement between fetuses in different gestational age. That is, fetuses from 35 weeks to term were more sensitive to response to the airborne stimulation than fetuses from 32 weeks to 34 weeks.
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    AN AMNESIC PATIENT WITH RIGHT CEREBRAL DYSPLASIA: PRIMING INDEPENDENT OF INTELLIGENCE
    Yu Shengyuan (Neurology Department, Chinese P.LA. General Hospital, Beijing 100853) Wang Changsheng (Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 422-427.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 138 )
    Priming is a major type of implicit memory and memory is traditionally considered as a major component of intelligence. However little is known about the relationship between priming and intelligence. This study conducted with four priming tasks, WISC-CR and WMS-CR on a patient with right cerebral dysplasia to explore the relationship between priming and intelligence. It was found that the patient performed almost equally or even bettor than two normal control groups did on the four priming tasks, but significantly impaired on WISC-CR (IQ = 56) and WMS-CR (MQ = 46). The results suggested that priming was independent of intelligence and its impairment had no effect on implicit learning. It argues that current intelligence theories ignored human unconsciousness and future intelligence tests should include priming or skill learning test contents because implicit memory is also one of the components of human abilities.
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    MODULATION OF THE PRIMARY HUMORAL IMMUNITY BY EMOTIONAL STRESS
    Shao Feng Lin Wenjuan Wang Weiwen Zheng Li (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 428-432.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 125 )
    The emotional stress induced by footshock apparatus as signal stimuli was investigated for its effect on the primary humoral immunity and endocrine response of rats. The reactivity of primary humoral immunity was tested by determing the value of specific IgG antibody after immunization with OVA, and the value of catecholamine and corticosterone were used to measure the endocrine response. Our results showed that ten minutes per day, six days uncontrolled footshocks could not decrease significantly the primary humoral immune response of rats, but footshocks and emotional stress together could decrease the anti-OVA IgG antibody production and spleen index significantly. At the same time, emotional stress could increase the levels of catecholamine and corticosterone significantly. It was concluded that immune and endocrine system were capable of reacting specifically to psychological stimuli.
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    C-FOS INDUCTION IN RESPONSE TO TASTE STIMULI PREVIOUSLY PAIRED WITH CY OR LICL DURING TASTE AVERSION LEARNING
    Yang Jie Lin Wenjuan Joshua Johansson Zheng Li Tan Hinbing (Brain-Behavior Research Center, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101) (Michigan University Ann Arbor MI 48109 U.S.A.) (Anatomy Department of Xiehe Medical Univers
    . 2000, 32 (04): 433-437.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 110 )
    C-Fos immunohistochemistry was used to define rat brain regions activated during expression of a CTA which was established by intake of saccharin solution (CS) paired with i.p. injection of CY or LiC1. Re-exposure to saccharin induced dense c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI) in hypothalamus, amygdala and limbic cortex et al. in both CY-paired and LiC1-paired groups, but this pattern of activation was not evident in saccharin controls or CY (LiC1)-unpaired groups. However there were several brain regions which showed some difference in c-FLI between CY-paired and LiC1-paired groups. CY-paired CS induced denser c-FLI than LiC1-paired CS in anterodorsal thalamic nucleus (AD), cingulate cortex (Cg), lateral hypothalamic area(LH), subfornical organ (SFD) and supraoptic nucleus(SO), retrosplenial granular cortex (RSG), these regions may be related to the action of immunosuppression induced by CY; But in accumbens nucleus (Acb), basotateral amydaloid nucleus(BL), ventral part of Latelal septal nucleus (LSV), LiC1-paired CS induced denser c-FLI than CY-paired CS, these regions may be related to the pharmacologic effects of LiC1 to the brain.
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    ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE IN CANCER PATIENTS: EORTC QLQ-C30 FOR USE IN CHINA
    Wang Jianping Chen Zhonggeng Lin Wenjuan Cui Junnan (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) (Department of Psychology, Beijing University, Beijing 100871) (Department of Psychology, Xinjiang Medical University, Whlumuqi 8300
    . 2000, 32 (04): 438-442.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 210 )
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical validity of the EORTC QLQ-C30 in a sample of cancer patients in China. 289 cancer patients were randomly assigned to one of four conditions factorial design. The data showed that: within all scales, items correlated significantly higher with its own scale than with another scale; the most scales structure of questionnaire were similar to the data of EORTC except a little difference, which might be due to cultural difference. Validity was shown by hoe findings: first while all interscale correlations were statistically significant the correlation was moderate, indicating that the scales were assessing distinct components of the quality of life construct; second, most of the functional (except social, cognitive function) and symptom measures discriminated clearly between patients differing in clinical status as defined by the Karnofsky performance status scale; third, there were changes (some of them were statistically significant changes) in the expected direction, in all scales, for patients whose performance status had improved or worsened during the course of treatment. These results support the EORTC QLQ-C30 as a reliable, responsive, and valid measure of the quality of life of cancer patients in clinical research settings in China.
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    THE CONCEPTUALIZATION AND VALIDITY OF CHINESE PERSONALITY AT WORK QUESTIONNAIRE (CPW)
    C Harry Hui Gan Yiqun Kevin Cheng (Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 443-452.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 236 )
    The present work attempted to take the recent advance in Chinese personality assessment further and to expand it into the area of organizational-industrial psychology. The authors aimed at developing an instrument to describe work-related personality traits and to predict job performance. The development of the CPW predicated on the belief that personality constructs operationalized in situation-specific forms are more useful for predicting behaviors in similar situations. The paper included three studies on the conceptualization, construct validity and criterion-reference validity of CPW. CPW items were chosen from an item pool developed by the Assessment and Development Centre (1996). Adopting the format of EPPS, most of the subscales in the original EPPS were redefined and items rewritten. Many items were written with specific reference to the work situation. The 15 CPW dimensions were: Drive for Personal Achievement Deference to Authority, Planning and Orderliness, Attention-Seeking, Autonomy, Need for Affiliation, Introspectiveness, Support-seeking, Dominance, Nonabrasiveness and Modesty, Innovativeness and Change- orientation, Tenacity, Client Service Orientation, and Overall Managerial Readiness. Each of the 15 dimensions were correlated with an Adjective Checklist The correlations were consistent with the definition of the CPW scales. The 15 CPW dimensions were then factor-analyzed. A 3-factor structure was found: Ambition- Altruism, Order-Independence, and Management- Subordination. The results support the conceptualization of CPW dimensions. Known group studies further supported the criterion validity of CPW: First managers scored higher on Dominance and Overall Managerial Readiness than non-managers. Second, social workers were found to be higher on Client Service Orientation, compared to university students and customer service staff in for-profit organizations. The instrument provides a Chinese indigenous personality instrument that has wide application value for research and practice in personnel psychology.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF COLLEGE SPECIALITY FINDER FOR SELFDIRECTED SEARCH IN CHINA
    Long Lirong (Department of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079) Peng Pinggen (Department of Educational Management, Shanghai Normal University, 200063)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 453-457.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 133 )
    The purpose of this study was to provide a guidance to senior middle school students who plan to choose college speciality and to undergraduate students who are going to choose the second speciality. With the Self-Directed Search, this study sampled 1227 college students in 8 universities in Wuhan, China. The results showed that SDS has necessary reliability and validity. By interviewing the students or their instructors, the speciality three-letter codes which were built up to replace the raw scores with the standard scores are of good validity and can provide suitable description of speciality. The results also showed that the consistency of the Speciality Finder and the Holland Occupations Finder are limited. The Holland Occupation Finder might be revised so that it can be applied to domestic conditions.
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    THE NATURE AND COMPONENTS OF METACOGNITION
    Wang Ling Guo Dejun (Educational Department, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100089)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 458-463.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 408 )
    The present paper probed into the nature and components of metacognition. Based on the analysis of relevant ideas, metacognition was defined as "the cognitive regulation of the ongoing cognitive activities", which included hoe components: metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive experience, and metacognitive skill. In addition, the role of every component played in metacognitive activities was discussed, and the relationship among the components was described in a schematic diagram.
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    THOUGHTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL QUALITY OF LEADERSHIP IN MOHISM
    Xia Jinhua Zhu Yongxin (Suzhou University Suzhou 215006)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 464-469.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 143 )
    Leadership is the main component of Organizational Psychology. Mozi-a representative work of Mohism written early in Pre-Qin Period-contains proficient thoughts on leadership. This article tries to present a detailed description on Mohism, from different aspects, such as leaders knowledge structure, morality, speech ability, attitude toward work and behavioral principle. This article also points out its significance in modern times.
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    A FURTHER STUDY OF LIANG SHUMING'S PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHTS
    Liu Yourong (Education Department of Chaohu Teachers College, Anhui, Chaohu 238000)
    . 2000, 32 (04): 470-475.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 122 )
    This paper gave an intrduction to Liang Shuming's psychological thoughts from six aspects, namely, the motive force of psychological mobilization, the acting principle of physical and ideological relations, the way of the formation of knowledge, the condition of psychological development the method of mental health and the ideas of learning psychology. A historical and systematic discussion into and comment on Liang Shuming's psychological thoughts, therefore, providing us with a general idea of his psychological thoughts. As a result this paper aimed at an overall understanding of Liang Shuming and at establishing his position in the history of Chinese modem psychology.
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