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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 June 1963, Volume 7 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТАЛЬНОЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ВЛИЯНИЯ РАЗНЫХ МЕТОДОВ ОБУЧЕНИЯ НА УСВОЕНИЯ ОСНОВНЫХ ГЕОМЕТРИЧЕСКИХ ПОНЯТИЙ
    Лу Чжун-хэн, Ин Юй-е, Чжан Мэй-лин, Хун Те-лунь, Нянь Вэи-Фэнь
    1963, 7 (02):  10-19. 
    Abstract ( 467 )  
    ~~
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    A CASE STUDY ON PRESCHOOL CHILD LEARNING TO RECITE CLASSICAL POETRY AND PROSE
    LING FENG-TSAO
    1963, 7 (02):  20-27. 
    Abstract ( 548 )  
    A full year's observation of the process by which a preschool child from 4 2/3 years old to 5 7/12 years old learned to recite classical poetry and prose, 64 items in all, and a subsequent analysis of the data obtained therefrom give the following conclusions:(1) With suitable materials and proper methods of teaching, the preschool child can learn to recite with pleasure classical poetry and prose.(2) With helpful explanations and directions given by grown-ups, the preschool child can not only recite classical poetry and prose, but also grasp the general meaning of what he has learned to recite.(3) Under natural circumstances, the preschool child does not feel it an extra burden to recite some classical poetry and prose.(4) It is not only possible but also profitable for a preschool child to recite a certain amount of classical poetry and prose.
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    SOME FACTORS EFFECTING THE OBSERVATION OF STIMULI FROM DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS
    LIN CHUNG-HSIEN
    1963, 7 (02):  35-42. 
    Abstract ( 465 )  
    This is an experimental study on the observation of light signal presented at different directions. The results indicated:1. By giving a preparatory signal to the Ss a few seconds before the stimulus ap pears, the reaction time in observation were shortened greatly.2. Observations accompanied with oral counting the beats of a metronome showed no influence on the reaction time.3. The reaction time increased when Ss observed with monocular vision than with binocular vision. The reaction time and mistakes increased when Ss observed with right eye observing (with left eye blindfold) at the light presented the left direction and vice versa.4. When Ss observed in a supine position and prone position, light in frontal direction were most easily discovered, especially those in the left-frontal direction. There were no significant difference between the reaction time in observing the stimuli from the left and from the right. The most difficult stimuli to react were those appearing at the back direction, especially the mid-back direction.5. When the Ss were in a supine position, the stimuli appearing at the front, left and right directions were most easily discovered in the middle region, then those in the lower region, and the stimuli in the upper region seemed to be more difficult to discover. While at the back direction, reaction time to stimuli in upper, middle and lower regions yielded no significant difference. When the Ss were in a prone position, stimuli from the frontal direction were easily discovered in the upper region, and also from the left and right directions in the middle region. There were no significant difference in the upper, middle and lower regions from the back direction.6. When Ss observed with monocular vision or observed in a supine position and prone position, stimuli in frontal direction were most easily discovered, then those in the left and right direction. The most difficult stimuli to observe were those appearing in the back direction.
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    FREE ASSOCIATION TEST AND ITS CLINICAL APPLICATION (Ⅰ)
    KUNG YAO-HSIEN
    1963, 7 (02):  52-58. 
    Abstract ( 710 )  
    A free association test with 50 stimulus-words was administered in 496 healthy subjects. The reaction time and the responses were analysed and discussed in relation to the stimulus words and to the educational level, age, sex, and the types of higher nervous activity of the subjects.
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    FREE ASSOCIATION TEST AND ITS CLINICAL APPLICATION (Ⅱ)
    KUNG YAO-HSIEN
    1963, 7 (02):  59-67. 
    Abstract ( 712 )  
    The results of free association test in neurotic patients (neurasthenia, hysteria and obsessional neurosis) and patients of hypertension and peptic ulcer having neurasthenic symptoms were analysed in relation with: 1) the reaction time and responses of the patients of different diseases and of the healthy subjects; 2) the effects of significant stimulus words on the cortical activity of the patients; 3) the results obtained under various clinical condition of the patients in relation with the effects of treatments.
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    RELATIVE RESPONSES TO COMPOUND STIMULI IN DOGS
    PENG JUI-HSIANG
    1963, 7 (02):  68-77. 
    Abstract ( 458 )  
    Triangles varied in size and projected flash frequency were used as compound stimuli. Larger size combined with higher frequency served as positive stimulus, whereas smaller size combined with lower frequeincy served as negative stimulus. This pair of training stimuli appeared simultaneously on two small doors, and the dog was required to respond to the positive stimulus by pushing the door with its nose, from which food was given.The results of the crucial tests showed, as a pair of test stimuli, which did not include the negative training stimulus, were used, generalization of relative response was obvious. But as the test stimuli included the negative training stimulus, and it transfered to positive, the number of relative responses nearly approached the level of chance. When two variables combined with each other conversely, namely, large size combined with lower frequency, the dogs responded to size only, ignoring the frequency. With the size of the triangles equated, but with the frequency changed, they responded by chance.The mechanism of relative reflex and the interactions of the temporary connections of both absolute and relative stimulus were discussed. When the positive training stimulus remained positive in the test, the temporary connections of the absolute stimulus facilitated the temporary connections of the relative stimulus; but when the former was negative, the temporary connections of the relative stimulus were interfered. Similarly, when the negative training stimulus played positive role in the test, the temporary connections of the absolute stimulus destroyed the temporary, connections of the relative stimulus; whereas if it retained its negative function, it facilitated the temporary connections of the relative stimulus in most cases.
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    SOME PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL THOUGHTS IN THE BOOK OF TSO CHUEN
    CHEN CHONG-KENG
    1963, 7 (02):  78-86. 
    Abstract ( 472 )  
    The Book of Tso Chuen, a great work on the ancient history of China, was compiled over 2,000 years ago and serves as one of the most important source books for studying ancient Chinese literature and philosophical thoughts. The present article discusses: 1) the emphasis on psychological factors by the ancient Chinese in studying the mechanism of somatic and mental diseases. The psychological factors were always considered together with other causes, such as one's living habits, environmental and physical conditions. It was believed that one's daily life should be kept in equilibrium with the "six natural influences". Lack of such equilibrium caused the "six diseases", including diseases of the mind and delusions; 2) the importance of harmony of behavior as seen by the ancients in discussing the principle for maintaining good health; 3) the theories of emotion, its arousers and classifications. In their analysis of several cases of emotional disorders, the ancients held that mental activities sometimes are indicators of bodily states, and that mental conflict and psychic over-strain often induced or aggravated bodily illness; 4) the classification of the mentally and physically handicapped in the Book of Kuo Yu, parallel work of Tso Chuen. They were divided into 8 classes and were called "eight diseases". The job suitable for each type of sufferers were also suggested
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