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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 September 1963, Volume 7 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    SEMANTIC NOISE IN CODING FLASH LIGHT SIGNALS
    LI CHIA-CHIH
    1963, 7 (03):  3-12. 
    Abstract ( 393 )  
    Three coding systems were designed for a comparative study of the semantic noise which may arise from coding different rates of speed by flash light with different frequencies. It was found that the most effective system is the one in which higher speed was coded by the flash light with higher frequency and lower speed by that with lower frequency. It was suggested that the advantage of this system was due tO its conformity with the subjects habit of thinking which has been established during his daily life.Reaction time and stimulus equivocation Hy(x), which has been taken as a measure of the semantic noise level, have been analyzed, and these two variables were found to be lineally related. The increase of reaction time was explained by the lengthening of decoding processes.
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    SIZE JUDGMENTS OF AN OBJECT IN ELEVATION AND IN DESCENT
    CHING CHI-CHENG, PENG JUI-HSEUNG, FANG YUN-CHIU, LIN CHUNG-HSIEN
    1963, 7 (03):  13-23. 
    Abstract ( 508 )  
    A hydrogen-filled ballon was sent up into the air to distances of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 metres from 0, and with the help of wind, was trailed laterally to various angles of elevation in relation to 0's horizontal line of regard. For each distance 0 perceived the stimulus flora two postures: 1) Sitting erect on a chair and viewing the elevated stimulus by raising his head and eyes; 2) Sitting with back and head against the pivoted and adjustable rear of the chair, which was then continually adjusted so as to remain at a right angle to the elevated stimulus, so that 0 always saw the stimulus straight ahead. The comparison stimuli were 22 discs of various sizes, placed near 0. It was found that when 0 sat in the erect position, the apparent size diminished gradually as the angle of elevation of the stimulus increased, and reached its minimum at the zenith; while when 0 sat in the straight ahead position, the apparent size diminished abruptly, was much smaller at 20° elevation, and reached its minimum at about 40° elevation, then remaining constant up to the zenith.When 0 looked downward from a high building at the stimulus on the ground, i.e. with an angle of regard below the horizontal, the apparent size also diminished, but to a lesser degree than it did with a raised angle of regard.As the crucial results of this experiment do not substantiate Boring's studies on the moon illusion, it is suggested that the raising of the eyes is not the cause of the shrinkage of apparent size, but rather that feedbacks from the movement of the head and the eyes, when looking upward at an elevated object, provide cues to the angular relation between the stimulus and ground, thus tending to yield a constant visual size as compared with that viewed along the ground, and that these cues decline gradually with increased elevation. In the straight ahead posture, 0 lost reference to the ground immediately as the stimulus ascended 20°—40° above the horizontal, whereupon the apparent visual size followed the law of visual angle.
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    THE SIZE-WEIGHT ILLUSION OF NORMAL ADULTS
    SHEN NEI-CHANG
    1963, 7 (03):  24-31. 
    Abstract ( 425 )  
    100 normal adult subjects, the two sexes being equally represented, were employed in a lifting-weight experiment. The requirement was to select a weight from a series of comparison cylinders to match a particular standard cylinder in perceived heaviness. The comparison weights are all of the same dimensions (4 cm in height and 2.5cm in diameter), but of different weight. There were two standard weights, all of 50 grams but of different dimensions. The larger standard is 4cm in height and 6.5cm in diameter, and the smaller one is 4cm and 1.5 cm respectively.The subjects used their right and left hands separately in making the above mentioned equal-heaviness matchings. A small group of left-handed persons was included in the experimental subjects.It was found: 1) that the size-weight illusion manifests without exception in every subject's comparisons of weight cylinders of different dimensions; 2) that on the whole the size-weight illusion shows no great difference with respect to the two sexes, but in judging the heaviness of the weights the female subjects have a slight hut consistent tendency to more strongly overestimate the smaller and underestimate the larger cylinders; 3) that the left-handed subjects' preferred hand tends to underestimate heaviness, but the size-weight illusion does not suffer any significant change because of this tendency of underestimation.
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    AN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC STUDY OF MENTALLY DEFICIENT PATIENTS
    LIU SHIH-YIH, WANG NEI-YIH
    1963, 7 (03):  32-40. 
    Abstract ( 438 )  
    EEG tracings of 106 mentally defective patients at various age levels were analyzed. Records were obtained in bipolar fashion on an "Ediswan" 16-channal EEG. "Evoked" potentials were initiated by "threshold" single and repititive flashes of light:1. Different degrees of alpha rhythm were observed for 59 out of 106 patients (55.7%), but the alpha frequency is lower than that of normals at the same age level.2. It has been suggested that theta rhythm is a common finding among mental defectives. Our results show that it seldom to display complete theta rhythm from occipital region above age 9, from temporal region above age 11 and from parietal region above age 13. The most commonly observed EEG abnormality consists of a(θ) or θ(α) patterns.3. Low percentage and short duration of "blocking" responses, occasional display and narrow range of "driving" frequency as well as absence of after-dischange are traits of the "threshold" evoked potentials in mentally defective patients.4. The incidence of EEG abnormality is highest in cases of idiots and imbeciles.
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    THE RECOGNITION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS UNDER TACHISTOSCOPIC CONDITION IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN Ⅰ.PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS ON METHOD
    TSAO CHUEN-YUNG, SHEN YEH
    1963, 7 (03):  41-51. 
    Abstract ( 503 )  
    Three experiments were conducted to investigate: 1) the relationship between visual duration threshold (VDT) and the size and brightness of stimulus; 2) VDT of words, phrases and disconnected word-groups; 3) VDT of familiar and unfamiliar words under different procedures.The results indicated: 1) under brief exposures (below 20 ms.), size×brightness×VDTk; 2) the VDT difference is significant between single word and disconnected word group (2—4 words) but not significant between single word and phrase (2—4 words); 3) VDT for familiar words are all about 10 ms. under different procedures (recognition or reproduction); 4) VDT difference between familiar and unfamiliar words is highly significant.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PURSUIT MOVEMENT AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
    LIN CHUNG-HSIEN
    1963, 7 (03):  60-67. 
    Abstract ( 696 )  
    A study of pursuit movements was performed on 424 subjects (aircraft pilots, air cadets, glider pilots, automobile drivers; basketball players and research workers). The apparatus consisted of a stick and a rudder assembled as in an aeroplane. The subjects were required to keep a marker along a moving zigzag course by operating the stick and the rudder. It was found that the accuracy of the controlled movements in tracking showed much differences among the subjects; the aircraft pilots obtained the highest accuracy scores, the glider pilots and the automobile drivers were the next best. The least accuracy scores were those of the basketball players and the research workers. The results also indicated that there were significant differences among the air cadets, which proved to be correlated with their flying achievements. It is suggested that the test might have some value in the selection of aircraft pilots.
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    GROWGTH OF GRIP STRENGTH OF ZHEJIANG CHILDREN
    WANG PAI-YANG
    1963, 7 (03):  77-84. 
    Abstract ( 385 )  
    Grip strength of 5912 Zhejiang children, aged from 5 to 18, has been measured by means of dynamometer. Results have been tabulated and analyzed as following:1. The growth curve of the absolute grip strength is similar to that of other physical development characteristics, while the growth rate shows an evident tendency of decrement.2. The development of the absolute variation (standard deviation) of grip strength is similar to the growth curve, with an upward tendency; and the development of the relative variation (coefficient of standard deviation) is similar to that of the growth rate, with a downward tendency.3. The average value of the right hand is greater than that of the left in every age group and both sexes. The absolute difference between the right and left hand increases with age, while the relative difference decreases with age.In most cases, the right hand grip strength is greater than the left, the percentages of these cases in both sexes are equal and increases with age.4. Grip strength of the female is smaller than that of the male in every age group, being about 85% of the male before age 11, rising to 92% at age 14, and dropping to 69% at age 18.
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    AN ELECTRONIC TACHISTOSCOPE
    TSAO CHUEN-YUNG
    1963, 7 (03):  85-88. 
    Abstract ( 416 )  
    This paper describes the structure and wiring diagram of an electronic exposure apparatus with step up exposure time ranging from 2.5 ms to 50 sec.
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