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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    30 July 2003, Volume 35 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF FRONTAL LOBE IN MEDIATING THE PERCEPTUAL LEVEL INHIBITION AND WORKING MEMORY LEVEL INHIBITION
    Luo-Jing,-Kazuhisa-Niki,Ding-Zhiguang,Luo-Yuejia
    2003, 35 (04):  427-432. 
    Abstract ( 2007 )   PDF (289KB) ( 1375 )  

    As one of the most important components in human’s high level cognitive process and one of the most basic functions of the frontal lobe, inhibition refers to the cognitive ability to suppress the irrelevant or interfering sensory input, motor output, or internal process. Recent cognitive neuroscience studies showed that different frontal regions are sensitive to different interferences and inhibitions. Yet, it is still unclear how the different kinds of inhibitory functions are hierarchically organized in the frontal regions. In this event-related fMRI study, we disassociated the frontal regions that were sensitive to the inhibition caused by perceptual interference and those were sensitive to the inhibition caused by working memory interference. Results proved that the hierarchical structure of the frontal lobe in mediating different kinds of inhibitory functions: posterior regions were responsive to the perceptual competition and inhibition, whereas anterior regions responded to the working memory ones

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    THE PARSING OF DISYLLABLE WORDS WITH SYNTACTIC CATEGORY AMBIGUITIES IN CHINESE SENTENCE READING
    Zhang-Yaxu,Liu-Youyi,Shu-Hua,Sun-Maosong
    2003, 35 (04):  433-440. 
    Abstract ( 1822 )   PDF (210KB) ( 1384 )  
    In Chinese language, there are some disyllable words, which are temporarily and syntactically ambiguous between noun and verb when being embedded in sentences. They are called words with syntactic ambiguities (WWSAs). Both high-noun-biased WWSAs (H-WWSAs) and low-noun-biased ones (L-WWSAs) were included in the present study for investigating their parsing processes and testing the theories of sentence processing. Thirty-six undergraduate students were asked to read sentences word-by-word as quickly as possible, without sacrificing their comprehension of each sentence. It was found that there was no significant difference of reading time between WWSAs and their control words, which was inconsistent with the prediction of the delay model that proposed that during the delay period at the onset of the ambiguity, very little analysis of the ambiguity takes place. It was also found that compared with their own control words respectively, L-WWSAs led to the longer reading time at two (i.e., the first and the third) regions of disambiguity, while H-WWSAs led to the longer reading time at three (i.e., from the first to the third) regions of disambiguity. These results showed that greater garden-path effects occurred for the H-WWSAs than for the L-WWSAs. Thus, the assigning processes of syntactic roles of WWSAs were influenced by their degree of noun biasing, which is predicted by the constraint satisfaction theory, but not by the garden-path model. In addition, subjects assigned the syntactic roles of noun even for L-WWSAs. It indicated that the parsing of WWSAs can be guided by the minimal attachment principle proposed by the garden-path model, when the degree of noun biasing of WWSAs can not provide any constraining cues for the resolution of syntactic ambiguities. All these results suggest that neither the constraint satisfaction theory nor the garden-path model can explain the parsing processes of WWSAs very well. Alternatively, readers may assign specific syntactic roles for WWSAs immediately, either by accessing probabilistic constrains information or by accessing specific parsing principles, depending on the strength of probabilistic constrains
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    TRADE –OFF PHENOMENON ON THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND UNCONSCIOUSNESS: ON NONLINGUISTIC RECOGNITION

    Guo-Xiuyan,Yang-Zhiliang,Zhou-Ying
    2003, 35 (04):  441-446. 
    Abstract ( 1951 )   PDF (157KB) ( 1295 )  
    PDP was used to explored the development of implicit and explicit memory on nonlinguistic recognition and the relationship between them, which were calculated by the contributions of consciousness and from inclusion test and exclusion test.. The design was 5(age) *2 (contributions : consciousness and unconsciousness ).The results revealed that in nonlinguistic recognition :1)the contributions of consciousness decreased with age; 2) the contributions of unconsciousness increased with age .3)the two lines intersects at the undergraduate point. Thus, we developed the work of concrete and steel to the trade-off phenomenon of the contributions of consciousness and unconsciousness
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    THE DETERMINERS OF PICTURE-NAMING LATENCY
    Zhang Qingfang,Yang YUfang
    2003, 35 (04):  447-454. 
    Abstract ( 860 )   PDF (219KB) ( 1261 )  
    This paper explored the determinants of picture-naming latency. Using a picture naming task and 5-point scale assessment method, we measured name agreement, familiarity, image agreement, visual complexity and word length of 311 pictures. Correlation analyses indicated that concept agreement, familiarity, image agreement and word frequency were the major determinants of picture-naming latency. Stepwise multiple regressions were carried out on the picture-naming latency. The R square of regression equation was 55.5%. On the basis of the naming latency, the pictures were divided into quintiles. These measures will prove valuable information in future studies of picture naming and other cognitive processes
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    SELF-ASSESSMENT AND RETENTION INTERVAL OF PROSPECTIVE MEMORY
    Zhao-Jinquan,Yang-Zhiliang,-Qin-Jinliang,Guo-Liping
    2003, 35 (04):  455-460. 
    Abstract ( 1460 )   PDF (173KB) ( 1499 )  
    Experimental results that delay and self-assessment of prospective memory in present research contradict with each other. This paper adopted a word-detect prospective memory task which was inlaid in some self-confident assessment items. The frequency of the target word increased across trials. The result indicated that: (1) A short delay between prospective memory instructions and background activity will lower the prospective memory performance. But in the period of 7-57 minutes(7 min, 17min,27min, 37min, 57min) prospective memory maintained. This result supported the suggestion that prospective memory forgetting may occur only during the first minutes after the encoding of intention; (2) There is no significant correlation between prospective memory and retrospective memory, so do some other variables like, sex, intelligence, and personality(16 indices of 16PF and 4 indices of Eysenck). (3) Correlation between prospective memory and retrospective monitor is significant, while nonsignificant relationship is found for self-assessment; (4) Age greatly influences prospective memory and self-assessment, children are overconfident and the elder are not so good as the young both in self-assessment and performance
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    AGE, ANXIETY IN RELATION TO EPISODIC MEMORY: ITEM MEMORY AND SOURCE MEMORY
    Li-Juan,Wu-Zhenyun,Lin-Zhongxian,Han-Buxin
    2003, 35 (04):  461-470. 
    Abstract ( 1115 )   PDF (204KB) ( 1654 )  
    Episodic memory includes two basic aspects, namely, memory for the content of a past event (item memory) and memory for its origin (source memory). Although it is well established that episodic memory functioning deteriorates with advance of age, the evidence with respect to the comparison of age-related differences between source memory and item memory is mixed (selectivity). In addition, broad individual differences can be observed in episodic memory aging (variability). The aim of the experiment was to investigate the selectivity and variability of episodic memory functioning in relation to anxiety. According to the scores on trait version of STAI, the high-trait and low-trait anxious subjects were screened respectively from young and old participants matched for educational level. In the first experiment, reality monitoring paradigm was used, and the sources (acting vs. listening) were present in either random or blocked ways. Results showed age-related deterioration in both item and source memory, but source memory was not more impaired than item memory, and the adverse impact of anxiety on episodic memory was observed only for the older group. In the second experiment, external source monitoring process was administered. Source encoding was either intentional or incidental while item encoding was always intentional. In addition to replicating the results of the first experiment, selective age and anxiety effects were found in source memory performance. Taken together, the results of the two experiments suggested that the selectivity of episodic memory aging was not related to the presentation ways and encoding effort for source, but was affected by the types of source; Anxiety had adverse impact on the variability in episodic memory aging, and mediated partial age-related differences in episodic memory performance
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    THE ROLES OF PROCESSING SPEED AND WORKING MEMORY IN COGNITIVE AGING
    Li-Deming,Liu-Chang,Chen-Tianyong,Li-Guiyun
    2003, 35 (04):  471-475. 
    Abstract ( 1499 )   PDF (150KB) ( 1525 )  
    This study, involving a sample of 1350 adults of 20 to 90 years of age and a battery tests of sensory-motor speed, working memory, normal memory, thought and spatial representation in computer, was conducted to analyze the roles of processing speed and working memory in cognitive aging by using the method of hierarchical regression analysis. The results indicated: (1) The contributions of processing speed and working memory to cognitive abilities in aging were about 87% and 76%. (2) The total contribution of processing speed and working memory to cognitive abilities in aging was about 94%. These results led us to conclude that processing speed and working memory play determinative roles in cognitive aging
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    AGE DIFFERENCE OF EVENT-BASED PROSPECTIVE MEMORY
    Wang-Qing,Jiao-Shulan,Yang-Yufang
    2003, 35 (04):  476-482. 
    Abstract ( 1312 )   PDF (159KB) ( 1072 )  
    Two experiments were conducted to discuss whether event-based prospective memory age-related declined, when prospective memory was embedded in the task of category judgment. Results of the first experiment showed no age deficits in event-based prospective memory, and there was no correlation between event-based prospective memory and free recall; but in the second experiment, the on-going tasks included color-judgment and category-judgment, the prospective tasks also included color-judgment and category-judgment. The results indicated that the congruence of on-going task and prospective memory affected performance of prospective memory. When they are all color judgments or category judgments, there were no differences between the young adults and the old adults. When they required different levels of process, age difference was significant. In conclusion, the relationship between the event-based prospective memory and aging was complex, it was determined by the character of even-based prospective memory
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    HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING IN TEMPORARY SEGMENTATION CHINESE HANDWRITING RECOGNIZER
    Wu-Changxu,Yang-Qunhui,Zhang-Kan,Hu-Yongge,Yang-Lei
    2003, 35 (04):  483-491. 
    Abstract ( 1918 )   PDF (322KB) ( 1144 )  
    To predict and improve human performance in temporary segmentation Chinese handwriting recognizer, static and dynamic performance models were set up. Experiment 1 verified and modified these two models, and an integrated model (D=N (WT+ST+R+439) + N[(1/RA)-1] [(0.816WT- 51.94 -439)+WT+ST+R+439] –(N/24)4973) was obtained. Experiment 2 further indicated that the integrated model could also account for the variance of the human performance data in another handwriting recognizer satisfactorily (R square>0.7). The application of the integrated model suggested that: (1) When the recognition accuracy (RA) and the number of characters inputted (N) were constants, the order of influence of the four factors (repairing time (T), average writing time for each character (WT), segmentation time (ST), recognition time (R)) was WT=ST=R>T; (2) When these four factors were constants, 1% improvement of recognition accuracy will save the task completion time at least 1000 ms
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    COMPARISON BETWEEN FACE-TO-FACE AND COMPUTER-MEDIATED GROUPS ON DECISION-MAKING IN IDEA-GENERATION TASK
    Zheng-Quanquan,Li-Hong
    2003, 35 (04):  492-498. 
    Abstract ( 1979 )   PDF (181KB) ( 1058 )  
    Brainstorming is a technique that helps to overcome the restriction of evaluation that takes place in most business meeting and one of the most popular idea-generating methods. Results of previous research on brainstorming and related idea-generating methods generally showed that interacting groups produced fewer ideas than equivalent numbers of nominal groups. Evaluation apprehensions, production blocking and free riding were said to be the three major causes for explanation of this fact. Some forms of production blocking were the primary impediment to generating ideas of groups. With expansion of IT in the world, computer-aid and computer-support systems have emerged rapidly in individual and group decision-making. Electronic brainstorming (EBS) is such a technique of computer-aid systems that focuses primarily on eliminating production blocking. It is expected to promote group idea-generation, and much evidence of both its effectiveness and why such effectiveness occurs has been presented.
    This study investigated into the effects of group size (six-persons vs. three-persons), group types (nominal vs. interacting) and kinds of communication media (compute-mediated, CM, vs. face-to-face, FTF) on the number and the quality of unique ideas produced by decision-making groups with simulated experiments in the laboratory. 144 Zhejiang University undergraduates were involved in this study. Subjects in each condition were given a task to help a poor student to earn enough money for studying and living in the school.
    The results showed: (1) The number of effective ideas produced by CM groups was much more than that of FTF groups under every condition of the experiments; The number of effective ideas produced by CM nominal groups was more than that of FTF nominal groups. The number of creative ideas was influenced primarily by production blocking and evaluation apprehensions. Production blocking existed in the face-to-face groups. As the size of the face-to-face group increased, the production blocking in the group was very obvious. Evaluation apprehensions also existed in the face-to-face group, but were not influenced by group size. (2) Both of breadth and the depth of idea-generation in each experimental condition were not affected by kinds of communication media, but were affected by types and size of groups. Because anonymity and parallelism in communication are two important ways for group members to contribute creative ideas, computer-mediated groups were thought to be the best ones for group members to contribute creative ideas. In the view of the breadth of the ideas, six-person groups were better than three-person groups, and nominal groups were better than interacting groups. (3) FTF groups were better than CM groups in terms of member’s confidence on the quality of ideas produced by himself or the group he belongs to
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATIVE BEHAVIORS IN RESOURCE DILEMMAS
    Yan-Jin,Wang-Zhongming
    2003, 35 (04):  499-503. 
    Abstract ( 1308 )   PDF (165KB) ( 1270 )  
    Trust and cooperation is the base of teamwork in e-commerce and virtual groups. This study used resource dilemmas to examine the development of cooperative behaviors in group tasks. One hundred and eleven students took part in the experiment. The results showed that multi-stage feedback of other members was the most important cue of dynamic decision-making and it was the base of cooperation. The environment uncertainty and value orientation of members will also interact with feedback and have effect on cooperation
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    VALIDATION OF RELATIONAL-REPRESENTATIONAL COMPLEXITY MODEL
    Xin-Ziqiang
    2003, 35 (04):  504-513. 
    Abstract ( 1358 )   PDF (252KB) ( 1199 )  
    At present many viewpoints on problem difficulty are partial. Based on these viewpoints a Relational-Representational Complexity Model (RRCM) was developed. In this model, two concepts of "problem difficulty" and "problem solving difficulty" were distinguished. The essence are relational complexity and representational complexity respectively. Relational complexity includes horizontal and hierarchical complexity; Representational complexity includes width and depth of representation. Test of internal and external validation of this model based on the data from 172 4~6th graders’ performance on constructing problems and judging the conditions of calculating area-of-rectangle and solving this kind of problems suggested which could interpret the order of problem (-solving) difficulty and discriminate the levels of representational complexity of excellent, normal and poor students. Indicating that this model has theoretical value
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    VISUAL PERCEPTION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Zhou-Xinlin,Zeng-Jieying
    2003, 35 (04):  514-519. 
    Abstract ( 1094 )   PDF (143KB) ( 1508 )  
    In previous research, people tended to explore the influences of component number on visual perception of Chinese characters based on some methods that didn’t focus on the early stages of processing the form of Chinese characters. As stroke number and structure of Chinese characters, component can be treated as a type of features in the form of Chinese characters. It’s necessary to use the methods that are helpful to explore the mechanism underlying in the early stages of visual perception of Chinese characters. The subjects in the present experiments were asked to identify the form of Chinese characters that were presented in the repeatedly tachistoscopical condition. In experiment 1, characters with 4-component and 2-component were randomly selected from the Basic set of Chinese characters(GB2312-80) and paired in frequency of presentation, stroke distance, stroke number and the pixel number. Undergraduates who were able to speak fluent Mandarin were instructed to name each character as quickly and accurately as possible. The result was that the characters with 4-component were easier to be identified than the correspondingly paired characters with 2-component. In experiment 2, there was no difference between identifying characters with 2-component and 4-component when the characters with 2-component had longer stroke distance. These results showed that there is the effect of component number in the early stage of visual perception of Chinese characters, which refers to the more components involved in a character, the easier to identify the form of the character. The effect suggested that subjects could process the form of Chinese characters based on partial cues (e.g., components). In the discussion part, a partial cue model for processing form of Chinese characters was proposed
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    COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE CHILDREN FROM 3 TO 5 YEARS OF AGE IN MAGNITUDE COMPARISONS OF ONE-FIGURE NUMBER
    Mo-Lei1,Zou-Yanchun,Chen-Zhe,Wang-Suiping,Wen-Zhonglin
    2003, 35 (04):  520-526. 
    Abstract ( 1505 )   PDF (156KB) ( 1394 )  
    The study probed into the cognitive activity and the development of the children from 3 to 5 years of age in magnitude comparison of one-figure number. Three experiments were included. In Experiment 1, the psychological representative model in magnitudes of one-figure numbers were explored. In Experiment 2, the semantic code characteristics of the numbers and the relation between numerical magnitude comparisons and semantic code were studied. In Experiment 3 ,the cause and effect research design was used to explore the influence of semantic code on the judgment of numerical comparisons. The results showed: 1.The comparison of numerical magnitudes made by children was influenced directly by their semantic representation of numbers.2. The children presented the discrete category model gradually in magnitude representation of one-figure number as their ages increased. As a result, the process of magnitude comparison of one-figure number developed gradually from the random and disorder course to the hierarchical comparison course
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    SPEED OF INFORMATION PROCESSING (SIP) OF 7 YEAR OLD INTELLECTUALLY SUPERNORMAL AND NORMAL CHILDREN
    Zou-Zhiling,Shi-Jiannong,Yun-Mei,Fang Ping
    2003, 35 (04):  527-534. 
    Abstract ( 1026 )   PDF (223KB) ( 1454 )  
    25 intellectually supernormal children (aged 6 yrs 10 months) were compared with 25 intellectually normal children (aged 6 yrs 11 months) on 4 Elementary Cognitive Tasks (ECTs), which included Choice Reaction Time (CRT), Logo Matching (LMRT), Mental Rotation (MR), and Abstract Matching (AM). The supernormal Ss were from an experimental class in a primary school in Beijing, and the normal Ss were selected randomly from a class in the same grade of the same school. The reaction time and correct ratio of Ss in each task were recorded with computer automatically. The results showed that: 1) The supernormal group performed better than the normal group in ETCs either by shorter RT or greater accuracy; 2) The SIP difference between the two group children is associated with the complexity of the task. In the first two ECTs(CRT & LMRT), the supernormal children react with shorter RT, and in LMRT, the more complex the task is, the more significant the difference is;But in the last two ETCs(MR & AM), the supernormal children react with greater accuracy, and in MR, the more complex the task is, the more significant the difference is.3) Ihe task complexity affects the reaction time and accuracy ratio of both the supernormal and normal children group, but in different ways. With the increase of complexity, the reaction times of both the normal and supernormal children were prolonged. At the same time, the accuracy ratio of the normal group children declined but that of the supernormal children kept stable in a rather high lever
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    THE STRUCTURAL MODELS OF RESPONSIBILITY, AFFECT RESPONSE AND HELP GIVING FROM ATTRIBUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE
    Zhang-Aiqing,-Liu-Huashan
    2003, 35 (04):  535-540. 
    Abstract ( 895 )   PDF (220KB) ( 1616 )  
    Attributional analysis of responsibility gave a new angle of view to the judgment of behavior responsibility by applying attributional theory to the analysis of responsibility of failed behavior. This study tested the relationships among attributional dimensions,responsibility, affect response and help giving. 238 managers and employees participated in the study, and two structural equation models were set up. EQS was used to test the models, and the data fitted both models well. The results suggested that in attributional process judgment of responsibility and affect response had a two-way relationship. This point of view was consistent with the theory that “cognition” and “affect” interacted with each other. So, a more general model was: Attribution→expectation change and judgment of responsibility, affect response→help giving. In addition, we also found that employees’ ascription to the target’s failure was more external and uncontrollable than managers, and employees assigned less responsibility to the target
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    THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CAREER MANAGEMENT, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION, AND GENERAL SELF-EFFICACY ON INDIVIDUAL CAREER MANAGEMENT
    Long Lirong
    2003, 35 (04):  541-545. 
    Abstract ( 2205 )   PDF (191KB) ( 2122 )  
    In order to confirm the factors influencing individual career management(ICM) , the reliability and validity of achievement motivation(AM) and general self-efficacy(GSE) were tested in the study 1. The reliabilities and validities of achievement motivation questionnaire and general self-efficacy questionnaire were acceptable using 449 useful subjects from 13 enterprises. In the study 2425 subjects sampled from 11 enterprises completed organizational career management questionnaire, achievement motivation questionnaire, general self-efficacy questionnaire, and individual career management questionnaire . After confirmatory analysis using 399 useful data ,the result indicated that OCM, AM, and GSE all had positive effects on ICM, in which OCM and performance motivation in achievement motivation had greater effects than the general self-efficacy factor
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    THE RISK PERCEPTIONS OF SARS AND SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS OF URBAN PEOPLE IN CHINA
    Shi-Kan,Fan-Hongxia,Jia-Jianming,Li-Wendong,Song-Zhaoli,Gao-Jing,-Chen-Xuefeng①,-Lu-Jiafang①,-Hu-Weipeng
    2003, 35 (04):  546-554. 
    Abstract ( 2745 )   PDF (228KB) ( 1995 )  
    Abstract
    To investigate Chinese peoples’ risk perception of SARS and the socio-psychological predictive model, this research surveyed 4231 people from 17 cities in China by the method of stratified sampling. The results indicated that: 1. Information of infection and personal interest had negative impact on people’s risk perception, recovery information with SARS and measures government took to prevent the spread of SARS can decrease the level of risk perception, and helplessness was found to moderate the relation between information and risk perception.2. The level of general risk was located in the area between familiarity and controllability. In the middle of May, people felt highest level of risk on the SARS pathogens, the second is the physical health and contagion after recovering from SARS. 3. The SEM result primarily supported our hypothesis of socio-psychological predictive model, and lay the foundation for Socio-Psychological Presentiment System of crisis and risky events
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    REALIZATION TO THE IRT MULTIPLE CATEGORY SCORING MODEL
    Luo-Zhaosheng,Qi-Shuqing,Dai-Haiqi,Ding-Shuliang
    2003, 35 (04):  555-558. 
    Abstract ( 1096 )   PDF (127KB) ( 1458 )  
    There are many effective computer programs for applying IRT models in the world, such as BILOG, RUMM, MULTILOG, PARSCALE. But these programs are not easy to be manipulated, especially for those who are not very familiar with IRT. These programs run in DOS mode, where commands are typed into a text file and then submitted. For the purpose of being more widely used with IRT, we discussed the realization of parameter estimation techniques for IRT multiple category scoring model, and developed a computer program called GES. GES is developed with object-oriented mode, and so it is very easy to be operated. To calibrate the program, analysis of five Monte Carlo simulated data sets were used in this study. And the results showed that GES is valid, also we found that the stable and validity of parameter estimation would be violated if the amounts of sample are too small
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    THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE IMMUNOMODULATION INDUCED BY STRESS
    Shao-Feng,Lin-Wenjuan,Xiao-Jian
    2003, 35 (04):  559-562. 
    Abstract ( 779 )   PDF (131KB) ( 1292 )  
    The evidence of the involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the immunomodulation induced by stress has increased tremendously. The studies were focused on the anatomic basis of the relationship between SNS and immune system, the reciprocal effect of SNS and immune system, and the effect of SNS on the immunomodulation induced by stress. To review the current knowledge of the SNS, immune system and stress, and to elucidate the mechanism of the effect of SNS on the stress-induced immunomodulation
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    INVOLVEMENT OF NEUROGRANIN IN MEMORY AND LEARNING
    Li Huanhuan.Lin Wenjuan
    2003, 35 (04):  563-567. 
    Abstract ( 1846 )   PDF (156KB) ( 1219 )  
    Neurogranin (NG )is a brain-specific protein newly found,which is distributed in some areas of the brain, especially in the hippocampus which is considered as a very important structure involved in the process of learning and memory. Many studies on neurogranin have been performed to examine its biological functions, especially the relationship between neurogranin and learning, memory and gained some valuable findings. These findings showed that neurogranin was involved in the mechanism of synaptic plasticity, including several pathways of protein signal transduction in the brain, long-term potentiation and long-term depression, and NG knockout animals exhibited deficits in learning and memory. Therefore it may be involved in the formation and consolidation of learning and memory. This review attempts to introduce the related researches, which may be helpful to further understand the brain mechanism and related molecules underlying memory and learning
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