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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    30 September 2003, Volume 35 Issue 05 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE POLYSEMY EFFECT IN CHINESE ONE-CHARACTER WORD IDENTIFICATION
    Peng-Danling,-Deng-Yuan,-Chen-Baoguo
    2003, 35 (05):  569-575. 
    Abstract ( 1454 )   PDF (167KB) ( 1628 )  
    The effects of polysemy and word frequency in the identification of Chinese one-character word were examined in lexical decision, naming tasks and go-no go naming task. The results showed that significant polysemous advantage effects were observed in all tasks. The interaction appeared with the polysemy effects being produced only for low-frequency words in lexical decision task and naming task, but appeared for both low- and high- frequency words in the go-no go naming task. The pattern of results of all three tasks was almost the same. According to the parallel distributed processing models, a possible explanation of polysemy effects was proposed
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    THE TIME COURSE OF GRAPHIC, PHONOLOGICAL AND SEMANTIC INFORMATION PROCESSING IN CHINESE CHARACTER RECOGNITION (Ⅱ)
    Chen-Baoguo,-Wang-Lixin,-Peng-Danling
    2003, 35 (05):  576-581. 
    Abstract ( 2329 )   PDF (161KB) ( 2266 )  
    Using different tasks, the time course of graphic, phonological, semantic information activation during Chinese low frequency characters recognition was investigated in two priming-category judgement experiments based individually on the semantic (Experiment 1) and phonological information. (Experiment 2) In Experiment 1, the graphic priming appeared at 43ms SOA, phonological and semantic priming appeared simultaneously at 85ms and 145msSOA. In Experiment 2, the graphic priming appeared at 43-ms SOA, phonological and semantic priming appeared at 57-ms, 85-ms and145-ms SOA. The two experiments showed: (1) for low-frequency Chinese characters, graphic information was first activated; the phonological and semantic activation could not separate obviously. (2) The order of the graphic, phonological and semantic activation did not depend on the tasks we had used
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    THE GATING PARADIGM AND SPOKEN WORD RECOGNITION OF CHINESE
    Wu Jingjing,Shu-Hua
    2003, 35 (05):  582-590. 
    Abstract ( 1974 )   PDF (159KB) ( 2632 )  
    Attempt to use gating paradigm and analyze data exploringly, the present study examined spoken word recognition of Chinese. The subjects were 47 undergraduates from Beijing Normal University, China. Each Mandarin monosyllable word was presented in duration-blocked format. The acoustic information of each word was increased cross groups with 40msec a gate. The subjects were asked to write down the word being presented and to indicate how confident they were about each guess on a 7-point scale. The results suggested that gating paradigm, as an approach for investigation of spoken word recognition of Chinese, provided rich information, such as isolation point (IP), and the relationship of IP and tone. Furthermore, error analysis showed more details of processing. First, tone can be recognized independently. Second, although tonal information is represented in mental lexicon in terms of distinctive features, these features are not the only constraints in on-line tone recognition. And finally, spoken word recognition, both for segmental and suprasegmental information, is influenced by the temporal order of tone pronunciation
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    EFFECT OF ATTENTIONAL LEVEL ON REPRESENTATION OF OBJECTS IN VISUAL WORKING MEMORY
    Chen-Caiqi,Fu-Guifang,Jin-Zhicheng
    2003, 35 (05):  591-597. 
    Abstract ( 1748 )   PDF (214KB) ( 2296 )  
    By using the single-probe change detection paradigm and a divided-attention procedure, two experiments were conducted in the present study to investigate the effects of feature dimension and attentional level on the representation of objects in visual working memory. Fourteen undergraduate volunteers participated in the first experiment, which was designed to examine whether features within the same dimension could be represented based on object, and whether such kind of representation was influenced by attentional level. In the second experiment, eight shapes and colors were combined into objects consisting of features from different dimensions. The representation form of such objects and the role of attention were examined. The results showed: (1) Objects defined by features from the same dimension were stored automatically with single feature as unit in visual working memory even in single probe condition. (2) Objects composed of features within different dimensions could be represented in integrated object form which demanded engagement of focused attention. (3) The storage of integrated information during perception stage in working memory also consumed attention resource
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    SUBSYSTEMS IN VISUAL WORKING MEMORY
    Liu-Xiaoping,Wang-Zhaoxin,Chen-Xiangchuan,Zhang-Daren
    2003, 35 (05):  598-603. 
    Abstract ( 1579 )   PDF (198KB) ( 1705 )  
    The aim of this study was to find out whether "subsystem superiority" exists when remembering single-feature objects, because in pre-experiment it was found that accuracy was better when two subsystems were involved in memory task than when only one subsystem is involved when multiple-feature objects were remembered. Ss were 17 students in University of Science and Technology of China. Ss were required to remember single-feature objects of the same number. In Condition 1, objects had the same kind of feature, while in condition 2, objects were classified into two features. The accuracies in both conditions were compared and it was found that the accuracy of condition 2 was better than that of condition 1. The result suggests "subsystem priority" exists when remembering single-feature objects
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    DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER AND DYSGRAPHIA:A CASE STUDY
    Meng-Xiangzhi,Zhou-Xiaolin,Wu-Jiayin
    2003, 35 (05):  604-609. 
    Abstract ( 1030 )   PDF (159KB) ( 2117 )  
    This study examined the cognition and motor skills in a 14-year-old boy with severe writing difficulties. This case, zl wrote very slowly, his handwriting was bad and hard to be recognized. The study showed that his intelligence, reading comprehension and listening comprehension were normal. There were no differences between zl’s performance on accuracy of naming single characters, two-character words, numbers, and objects with that of same-aged controls. But his speed was significantly slower than that of the controls. This study focused on zl’s fine motor, visual-spatial, visual, and sequential processing skills. The results showed that his visual memory and motion detection was normal. His motor skill, visual-spatial, and sequential processing abilities were significantly worse than those of the controls. Neurophysiology examination found that his brain wave was abnormal, MRI scans indicated that myelinated corpus callosum and cerebellum developed abnormally. These findings suggested that zl’s writing difficulties reflected his general motor coordination disorders, and had neurophysiologic foundations. The implications for cognitive neurology mechanism and early diagnosis of writing difficulties were discussed
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    ROLE OF THE FRONTAL LOBE IN PERCEPTUAL PRIMING EFFECTS: ANALYSIS OF COLOR NAMING AND WORD NAMING TASKS

    Yang-Jiongjiong,Weng-Xuchu,Guan-Linchu2,Kuang-Peizi

    2003, 35 (05):  610-616. 
    Abstract ( 569 )   PDF (159KB) ( 1347 )  
    This study explored the role of frontal lobe in associative perceptual priming and perceptual priming effects. Twenty-five frontal lobe lesioned patients and 18 age, gender and education matched control subjects were examined. Each patient did general basic neuropsychological tasks, then they did color naming (25 patients), word naming (11 patients) and corresponding recognition tasks in counterbalanced order. The results demonstrated that in both speeded naming tasks, the patients did not show any facilitation on the reaction time of the old colored word relative to the recombined ones, suggesting their impairments both in associative priming and perceptual priming. The recognition memory of mild memory deficit patients was not significantly different from that of the controls. The correlation analysis showed that there were modest but significant correlation between associative priming, perceptual priming effects and some of frontal lobe functions. These results suggest that the frontal lobe plays a role in associative perceptual priming and perceptual priming effects, probably mediated by its executive functions such as inhibition and selective attention
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    THE ROLE OF WORKING MEMORY AND SENSORIMOTOR SPEED IN ADULT AGE DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL SUBTRACTION
    Liu-Chang-,Li-Deming
    2003, 35 (05):  617-627. 
    Abstract ( 1950 )   PDF (276KB) ( 1441 )  
    This study, involving a total of 161 adults between 20 and 79 years of age, investigated age-related differences of cognitive processing in mental subtraction. Aggregated and individual data analyses were conducted to evaluate the relative importance of working memory and sensorimotor speed in adult age differences in mental subtraction. Overall, reaction time and errors increased with the advance of age and arithmetic task difficulty, but the magnitude of age differences in mental subtraction was significantly reduced by statistically controlling measures of working memory and sensorimotor speed. Moreover, there is a larger attenuation of the age-related effects on mental subtraction after control of sensorimotor speed than after control of working memory. However, age-related differences in mental subtraction were not fully mediated by working memory and sensorimotor speed
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    THE INFLUENCE OF CATEGORY FEATURE’S SIMILARITY AND RIVALROUSNESS ON CATEGORY
    Mo-Lei,--Chang-Jianfang
    2003, 35 (05):  628-635. 
    Abstract ( 1399 )   PDF (186KB) ( 1109 )  
    The current study examined the effect of the property of stimulus’ feature on category. Participants in the research consisted of 180 senior under-graduates in South China Normal University. The materials included learning materials and testing materials. And the learning materials were a sample sheet depicting 12 members of two categories, 6 for each category. The testing materials included many new stimuli which are different from the members in the sample sheet in similarity and rivalrousness. Participants were supposed to predict the category label of each stimulus based on the group defined in the sample sheet. The proportion of category-accordance response and the confidence of the response were analyzed. The results of the two experiments showed that: (1) as the two components of similarity, the number of matching features and their matching probability were in direct proportion with the accordance and confidence of the response;(2) as the two components of rivalrousness, the number of rivalrous features and their rivalrous probability were in inverse proportion with the accordance and confidence of the response
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    ILLUSION IN DOUBLE-PREMISES DEDUCTIVE REASONING
    Liu Zhiya,Zhao Dongmei
    2003, 35 (05):  636-642. 
    Abstract ( 1329 )   PDF (148KB) ( 1312 )  
    The illusion in prepositional and syllogistic reasoning was studied. Sixty Jinan university students participated in 2 experiments, we used the double-premises problems heading “only one of the premises is true”. The materials were prepositional in Experiment 1 and dramatized in Experiment 2. The t test showed that the participants considered the truth of each premise in turn, but neglected the fact that when one premise was true, the other was false. The result consisted with the “principle of true” predicting by mental model theory. A conversion-mechanism provided a complemented explanation for the model theory
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    VISUAL-SPATIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM SOLVING AMONG MATHEMATICAL LEARNING DISABILITIES
    Yu Guoliang,Zeng Panpan
    2003, 35 (05):  643-648. 
    Abstract ( 2126 )   PDF (145KB) ( 1681 )  
    By using clinical interview, this study investigated mathematical problem solving,visual-spatial representations, and spatial visualization ability among 30 children with learning disabilities(MD) and 31 children without MD. The results showed that: Schematic representations promote mathematical problem solving success, but pictorial representations may present an obstacle to mathematical problem solving. The correlations of spatial visualization ability with mathematical problem solving and with use of schematic representations were positive and significant. The correlations between spatial visualization ability and use of pictorial imagery were negative and significant. Children with MD performed poorer than those without MD on mathematical problem solving and use of schematic representations. The extent of use of pictorial representations by children with MD was significantly higher than that of those without mathematical learning disabilities. Both children with MD and without MD performed better and better on mathematical problem solving and use of schematic representations with the progress of the grade. However, use of pictorial representations declined with the progress of the grade among children without MD, but children with MD didn’t show the same trend. Spatial visualization ability of both children with MD and without MD improved with the progress of the grade
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    THE ROLE OF PART-WHOLE KNOWLEDGE IN SOLVING ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION WORD PROBLEMS
    Zhou-Xinlin,-Zhang-Meiling
    2003, 35 (05):  649-655. 
    Abstract ( 1809 )   PDF (206KB) ( 1075 )  
    In previous research on addition and subtraction word problems, people argued that part-whole knowledge plays a crucially important role, which is called part-whole hypothesis. However, there has been little convincing evidence to show the substantial influence of part-whole knowledge on children’s performance. The present experiment was to test the hypothesis. Children in the forth grade of primary school and undergraduates were asked to solve one-step addition word problems (correct answer is “a+b”, “a” referring to the first quantity occurred in problem text, “b” to the second quantity). If the part-whole knowledge that is a type of abstract logic-mathematical knowledge discarding the concrete features of object sets, mediate children’s thinking, it could be predicted that the correct answer was unanimously “a+b” or “b+a” without regard to the concrete features of object sets and the trend was more pronounced for undergraduates. The results showed that the concrete features of known object sets systematically influenced the surface of the correct answer, and especially the influence became more and more salient with age and practice, which was called hypothesis of problem familiarity on the surface of correct answer. The results were totally inconsistent with predictions. Therefore, it is necessary to doubt the part-whole hypothesis. The present research accounted for the results based on the position of object set in mental representation and representational strength. The instructional implication was discussed at the end of this paper
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    PRESCHOOLERS’ UNDERSTANDING OF CONDITIONAL PROMISE
    Fang Fuxi,Liu Guoxiong
    2003, 35 (05):  656-661. 
    Abstract ( 1940 )   PDF (213KB) ( 1229 )  
    By presenting 2 sets of pictures representing different violating situations in which mother or child or both acted as violator(s) to 3 age groups of 4, 5, and 6 year-old, preschoolers’ understanding of social contract in the form of conditional promise was examined. The results indicated that: 1) Preschoolers’ understanding of conditional promise showed evident developmental progress, which means that most preschoolers can detect peer violation and the rate detecting mom violation and bilateral violation grows with age, among which none 4-year-olds can detect mom violation and none 5-year-olds can detect bilateral violation. 2) Preschoolers’ detection of different violating figure is different, which manifests perspective effect and priority detection for peer violation effect. 3) Most preschoolers didn’t understand conditional promise as biconditional
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    DEVELOPMENT OF 3~5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN’S RECOGNITION OF PRETENSE AND INFERENCE OF PRETENDER’S MENTAL STATE
    Wang Guiqin,Fang Ge
    2003, 35 (05):  662-668. 
    Abstract ( 2049 )   PDF (183KB) ( 1658 )  
    The study examined the procedure and characteristics of 3~5 year-old preschoolers’ understanding of pretence. Three conditions were installed:toys, substitutes and imagination. Two level of investigations were performed: preschooler’s recognition of pretense and inference of pretender’s mental state. The results showed that: (1) most 3~5 year-old preschoolers can recognize pretence,but the ability of inference of a pretender’s mind is gradually developed at 5; (2) 3~5 year-old preschoolers’ cognition of pretence is easily affected by supports; (3) preschoolers’ recognition of pretense mainly inclined to external features
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    THE EFFECTS OF FACTORS AS GROUP STRUCTURE AND DECISION TRAINING ON DECISION-MAKING OF GROUPS
    Zheng Quanquan,Liu Fangzhen
    2003, 35 (05):  669-676. 
    Abstract ( 1143 )   PDF (185KB) ( 1406 )  
    Based on the studies of Stasser and Larson, this study investigated the effects of task difficulty, decision training and the role of group leaders on the quality of decision-making by groups with laboratory experiments. In this study, the 3-person group was asked to decide which one among 3 candidates was best suited for the position of student body president or which one among 6 candidates was best suited for the position of university English teacher. The results showed: (1) The information sampling model was partly verified, and the personal preference was the mediated factor affecting the decision making of groups, but only when the task was less complex was the model correct; (2) Group leader managed and colligated already-pooled information by repeating information and questioning, but such a group structure had no major effect on the information sampling and its effect was shown only by combining with decision training and task complexity; (3) Training of the strategy planning and information vigilance enhanced the proportion of unshared information discussed. But only when task complexity was low or moderate did the effect appear, and it happened only at the beginning of discussion, and had impact on personal preference of members’ before discussion; (4) There was an interaction between the effects of a group leader and decision training, i.e., the leader could prompt information sampling of a group in the decision-making training condition, and the effect of decision-making training was more prominent in the condition of having a group leader. These two factors were both affected by task complexity
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    THE INFLUENCE OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE AND PROCEDURAL JUSTICE ON JOB BURNOUT
    Li Chaoping,Shi-kan
    2003, 35 (05):  677-684. 
    Abstract ( 6851 )   PDF (168KB) ( 6410 )  
    Based on 294 samples from three companies, this study first tested the psychological property of MBI-GS and made some revisions according to the result. Then 524 employees from six companies were invited to join the final survey. CFA was used to confirm the construct validity of MBI-GS. T-test and One-way ANOVA showed organizational justice and job burnout was influenced by demographics variables. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that organizational justice was a power predict of job burnout beyond demographics variables. Dominance analysis further indicated that when predicting Emotional Exhaustion 65.91% of the predicted variance was attributed to distributive justice. When predicting Cynicism 56.07% of the predicted variance was attributed to procedural justice
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    THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL STRESS ON THE C-FOS GENE EXPRESSION OF BRAIN AREAS
    Shao-Feng,Lin-Wenjuan,Wang-Weiwen,Chen-Jihuan
    2003, 35 (05):  685-689. 
    Abstract ( 1605 )   PDF (134KB) ( 1332 )  
    To explore the effect of emotional stress on c-fos gene expression of brain areas, two types of animal models of immunomodulation induced by emotional stressor were used. One was footshock apparatus as signal stimuli to cause the rats which were given footshock before emotional stress, the other was empty water bottle to cause the rats which were trained to drink water at two set times each day emotional stress. Both of the emotional stressors were demonstrated to suppress the primary immunity of rats. The c-fos gene, a nuclear proto-oncogene, is transiently expressed in neurons after stimulation and within one hour produces detectable amounts of its product, c-fos. Immunocytochemical localization of the c-fos protein was used to determine neuronal activation in areas of the central nervous system. After two hours of emotional stress, the rats were perfused transcardially, then the brains were removed, blocked, immersed, cut with a freezing microtome, immunocytochemical stained. The results showed that compared to rats in control groups, c-fos protein was strongly expressed at several brain areas in rats of the emotional stressed group. The brain areas contain frontal cortex, cingulum cortex, amygdala, anterior commissure nucleus, arcuate nucleus, diffuse part of dorsalmedial nucleus hypothalamus, solitary nucleus. Conclusion: These brain areas maybe the major central areas activated by the emotional stress
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    CHANGE OF STATE EFFECT IN REGRET: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    Zhang Jiehai

    2003, 35 (05):  701-710. 
    Abstract ( 1837 )   PDF (261KB) ( 1301 )  
    This article replaces action/inaction with change of state/status quo due to its shortcomings. Unitary event is distinguished from divided event in the framework of change of state-status quo. It was approved that action/inaction is only applied to unitary events but not to divided events. This conceptual framework of change of state effect adds to the power of norm theory (Kahnman and Miller, 1986) and incorporate their reception effect and action effect into one change of state effect. On the other hand, this framework also partly explains the long-lasting differences between scenario experiment and field research on regret and counterfactual thinking
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