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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 35 Issue 06 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    PHONOLOGICAL, ORTHOGRAPHIC, AND SEMANTIC ACTIVATION IN THE SPEECH PRODUCTION OF CHINESE
    Zhou-Xiaolin,Zhuang-Jie,Wu-Jiayin,Yang-Dahe
    . 2003, 35 (06): 712-718.  
    Abstract   PDF (166KB) ( 1406 )
    A picture-word interference paradigm was used to investigate the relative time course of phonological, orthographic, and semantic activation in the speech production of Chinese. Subjects were asked to name pictures onto which a Chinese character was superimposed either at the same time as picture presentation or 150 ms later. The superimposed character could be either homophonic to, or semantically related to, or orthographically similar to, or unrelated to the name of the picture. It was found that while homophonic characters and orthographically similar characters facilitated picture naming at both the two SOA conditions (0 ms and 150 ms), semantically related showed inhibitory effects on picture naming in both reaction time and error rate at the short SOA and only in error rate at the longer SOA. These findings were discussed in relation to the debates between modular and interactive theories of spoken word production
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    RESEARCH ON ARTICULATORY RULE OF THIRD TONE SANDHI OF STANDARD CHINESE IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS
    Deng-Yuan,Feng-Liping,Peng-Danling
    . 2003, 35 (06): 719-725.  
    Abstract   PDF (159KB) ( 812 )
    The naming task was employed to find out whether the rule of third tone sandhi would have impact on the derivation of phonology in real and pseudo word context respectively. The results showed: 1) fluent Mandarin speakers have sense of third tone sandhi. And the third tone sandhi took place in both contexts. 2)The third tone sandhi affected the derivation of phonology. And the way it affected varies with different kinds of word context. The analysis on reading error provided some evidences to support the discussion
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    CONTEXT EFFECTS IN CHINESE SENTENCE READING COMPREHENSION
    Lu-Zhongyi,Xiong-Wei
    . 2003, 35 (06): 726-733.  
    Abstract   PDF (170KB) ( 1415 )
    The context effects in Chinese sentence reading comprehension was studied. The naming task was used via rapid serial visual representation with reaction time as index. The results indicated that the acting mechanism of context changes under different contextual conditions. With weak semantic association between the prime word and the target word,on the one hand, the modularities are independent of one another in the context which is lowly incongruent with the target word, i.e. the modularities are not influenced by other ones; on the other hand, the modularities are interactive when the context is highly incongruent with the target word, i.e. different contexts have different effects on lexical identification. With strong semantic association between the priming word and the target word, the context effect results from the associative priming, which proves the modularity theory
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    Classification and Distribution of Sentence Stress in Mandarin
    Wang-Yunjia,Chu-Min,He-Lin
    . 2003, 35 (06): 734-742.  
    Abstract   PDF (265KB) ( 1139 )
    This paper introduces two independent experiments in which perceptual prominent degree (in Exp. 1) and stress type (in Exp. 2) of syllables were labeled, respectively, in a speech corpus containing 300 utterances. In Exp. 1, 60 subjects, who had no linguistic background, were divided into three groups to label the stressed prosodic units they heard, i.e. compound prosodic words in sentences, prosodic words in compound words and syllables in prosodic words,. Perceptual prominent degrees of syllables were then calculated from the results. The three authors of this paper, who are phoneticians, participated in Exp. 2, in which sentence stresses were classified into semantic stress and rhythmic stress. The perceptual prominent degree obtained in Exp. 1 provides convincing evidence for the classification of sentence stress in Exp. 2. That is to say the difference between the two stress types is perceptible by Mandarin native speakers. The final results show that (1) all stressed syllables are much more prominent than unstressed ones; (2) semantic stress is more prominent than rhythmic stress; (3) when a syllable obtained a sentence stress, it has the tendency to enhance the prominent degree of the unstressed syllable followed it, however, the difference between the prominent degree of the stressed syllable and the unstressed syllable is enlarged; (4) rhythmic stress tends to be allocated to the last syllable of the last prosodic word (or foot) in a semantic unit, while the location of semantic stress cannot be predicted from the prosodic structure of a sentence
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    RESEARCH ON THE MODE OF INFORMATION INTEGRATION IN TEXT-READING
    Mo-Lei,--Wang-Ruiming,--He-Xianyou
    . 2003, 35 (06): 743-752.  
    Abstract   PDF (190KB) ( 1236 )
    Moving window method was used to investigate the mode of information integration in text-reading. Subjects were 120 university students from South China Normal University. According to whether the elaboration on a characteristic of the protagonist was consistent with subsequent target action carried out by the protagonist, the experimental materials were divided into two categories: consistent version and qualified version, and each passage had two target sentences in different places. In experiment 1a&1b, the mode of information integration in long-memory was investigated, and in experiment 2a&2b, that in work-memory was investigated. The reading time of two target sentences were analyzed respectively with Paired-Samples t Test. The results showed that in qualified condition, the background information both in long-memory and work-memory were integrated completely with the present information (called coordinating integration), and what’s more, through this integrating, not only the coherence of text-reading was maintained, but also the relative background information was constructed to be an information chunk.
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    ERP DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROCESSING OF NOUNS AND VERBS
    Zhang-Qin,-Ding-Jinhong,-Guo-Chunyan,-Wang-Zhengyan
    . 2003, 35 (06): 753-760.  
    Abstract   PDF (349KB) ( 1708 )
    An experiment was conducted to examine the difference between noun and verb words using ERP measurements and lexical decision task. Results showed that there was significant interaction between word class and word-concreteness between 200~300、300~400ms in lateral sites. Concrete nouns were associated with a more negative ERP than concrete verbs in the two hemispheres. Furthermore, there was significant interaction between word class and electrode site between 300~400ms. ERP differences between nouns and verbs were primarily over frontal lobe and temporal lobe. Our results partly supported neurobiological theory of language representation
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    ROLE AND MECHANISMS OF THE MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE IN PERCEPTUAL PRIMING EFFECTS

    Yang-Jiongjiong,Weng-Xuchu,Guan-Linchu,Kuang-Peizi

    . 2003, 35 (06): 761-766.  
    Abstract   PDF (149KB) ( 836 )
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    HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING IN SPATIAL SEGMENTATION CHINESE HANDWRITING RECOGNIZER

    Wu-Changxua,-Li-Huailongb,-Yang-Qunhuib,--Zhang-Kan

    . 2003, 35 (06): 767-776.  
    Abstract   PDF (297KB) ( 1355 )
    To predict and improve the human performance in spatial segmentation Chinese handwriting recognizer, a mathematic performance model was set up based on the Fitts’ law and mathematical expectation of the discrete variables. The model was verified by the experiment that the model could account for the variance of human performance data in the experiment very well (R square > 0.85) after the subjects experienced 8 times (8*24 characters) of training. The model can be applied into (1) the prediction of the task completion time when users are interacting with a specific spatial segmentation handwriting recognizer in copying task; (2) the choice of the optimal parameters in the recognizer; It was also found by the model that when the other parameters in the handwriting recognizer are constants, the reduction of user’s handwriting time per character will play a more important role in determining human performance than the reduction of recognition time
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    IMPLICIT LEARNING OF DISTRIBUTED DECISION GROUP IN DYNAMIC SYSTEM CONTROL TASK
    He Gebing,Zeng Jianhua
    . 2003, 35 (06): 777-785.  
    Abstract   PDF (274KB) ( 1237 )
    This study examined implicit learning and its transfer effects on decision performance of distributed group in simulated dynamic system control task. The results indicated that decision makers could improve their control performance adaptively with little explicit knowledge about the system rule. The correlation between rule knowledge and decision performance was also insignificant. When the goal of control changed, high level performance was still maintained. It implied that implicit learning about system rule intensively happened and positively transferred into similar decision situation. Based on these results, we suggested that adaptive group decision behavior could be driven by implicit process
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    ACQUISITION AND CHANGE OF STRATEGY IN MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM SOLVING:A MICROGENETIC STUDY

    Xin-Ziqiang,Yu-Guoliang

    . 2003, 35 (06): 786-795.  
    Abstract   PDF (304KB) ( 1165 )
    In this study, a microgenetic method was used to obtain the detailed data on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of change, such as the path, rate, breadth, source and variability of cognitive change. In each of the five testing sessions the data of solution time and accuracy and verbal report on strategies for solving mathematical equivalence problems were collected from 30 3rd-grade children. The results showed that because of having no knowledge base and special strategies for solving new problems participants had to use many general strategies (such as add-subtract or equalize), moreover they also had to use many incorrect strategies (such as add all or add to equal sign). Then when they constructed correct representation of problems, they mainly used correct strategies, and they could discover domain-special shortcut strategies. At this stage, the variability of strategy decreased. Once they confronted hard transfer task, the proportion of using shortcut strategy cut down significantly, and they had to use general or incorrect strategies. That is to say, at this stage the variability of strategy increased. So it could be concluded that the acquisition of strategies is an evolution process from using incorrect strategies to the correct, from tentatively using many strategies to using only one, from using domain-general strategies to using domain-special shortcut strategy. The process is a constructive one, but it might be affected by knowledge presented by formal or informal instruction. It was worth paying attention to that the patterns of exercise have effect on the acquisition of shortcut strategy. The blocked problems led to higher levels of activation and discovery of the shortcut strategy than the mixed problems. But the latter is more facilitated to the transfer of shortcut strategy than the former
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    THE EFFECT OF IMPLICIT SELF-ESTEEM AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF EXPLICIT SELF-ESTEEM AND IMPLICIT SELF-ESTEEM
    Cai-Huajian
    . 2003, 35 (06): 796-801.  
    Abstract   PDF (197KB) ( 2760 )
    Both an evaluative Implicit Association Test (IAT) and an affective one were designed to measure implicit self-esteem.90 undergraduates took both IATs and also accepted three explicit self-esteem measures: the Self-Esteem Scale(SES,Rosenberg,1965),the Feeling of Inadequacy Scale(FIS, Janis, Field,1959),the Self-Esteem Inventory(SEI, Coopersmith ,1967) . Then Confirmatory Factor Analysis was carried out to explore the structure of implicit self-esteem and explicit self-esteem. The result showed: (1) the effect of Implicit Association Test was significant which means that eastern individuals hold a positive evaluation to themselves unconciously and IAT was valid to detect the effect; (2) Implicit self-esteem and explicit self-esteem were different traits , the correlation between them was positive and low
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    The effects of mediators on the aging of primary mental abilities
    Shen-Jiliang,-Wang-Dahua,-Peng-Huamao,-Tang-Dan
    . 2003, 35 (06): 802-809.  
    Abstract   PDF (243KB) ( 1423 )
    The theory of processing recourses proposed that sensory function (SF), speed, capacity, and inhibition are four mediators that affect cognitive aging. Seldom has research examined the mediation of all these four factors. Standing on an integrating approach, the present study administered computerized measurements to test the mediators’ influences on primary mental abilities (PMA) aging. 217 old adults from three communities of Beijing, with age ranging from 60 to 85, participated in the project. SEM analysis indicated that SF, speed, and capacity are important mediators for PMA aging. SF was a fundamental factor among the mediation for it affected the aging process through both speed and capacity. Capacity was a key factor in the hierarchical mediating model for all the indirect mediations connected with it. However, no significant mediation was found for inhibition when Stroop effect and negative priming were employed as the observing variables
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    THE STRUCTURE OF CHILDREN’S EARLY MATHEMATICAL ABILITY AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS
    Hua-Zhang,Lijuan-Pang,Sha-Tao,Yao-Chen,Qi-Dong
    . 2003, 35 (06): 810-817.  
    Abstract   PDF (423KB) ( 1717 )
    This study was designed to explore the structure of children’s early mathematical ability and its characteristics. 234 children aged from 3~4-year-old to 4~5-year-old were tested individually with standard procedure. The results from confirmatory factor analysis indicated:(1)The structural model of children’s early mathematical ability was reasonable and it had good structural validity. In detail, children’s early mathematical ability was explained by number, arithmetic, measurement, space/geometry and pattern; (2) The structure of children’s early mathematical ability was stable across different ages but the structural model was not consistent completely; (3) Boys’ structural model was identical with that of girls’
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    STUDY ON EYE MOVEMENTS OF VIEWING ILLUSTRATIONS IN NEW MATHEMATIC TEXTBOOK OF FIRST GRADE PRIMARY SCHOOL
    Han-Yuchang,-Ren-Guiqin
    . 2003, 35 (06): 818-822.  
    Abstract   PDF (143KB) ( 1495 )
    The research used a 2×3 mixed design to investigate the effect of illustrations with different backgrounds in the new mathematic textbook through Model 3200R Eye Movement Monitoring System made in American applied science laboratory. Its results according to the indexes of reading comprehension and eye-movements showed that: Primary school students had a better comprehension on illustrations with backgrounds than illustrations without backgrounds whatever the reading material was easy or not; The complex backgrounds of illustrations improved the students’ comprehension on difficult mathematic problems and simple backgrounds of illustrations helped students to solve easy mathematic problems; The results of eye movements indicated that the effects of the illustrations in the new mathematic textbook is quite good
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    THE RELATIONS BETWEEN INSPECTION TIME AND INTELLIGENCE OF CHILDREN
    Liu-Zhengkui,-Shi-Jiannong, Chengli
    . 2003, 35 (06): 823-829.  
    Abstract   PDF (199KB) ( 989 )
    Studied the relationship between intelligence test performance and 3 visual inspection time measures including classical line inspection time, digital inspection time and component of Chinese character inspection time. 84 children, including 7 year olds, 9 year olds and 11 year olds, attended the test for 3 kinds of inspection time, all subjects also completed the Cattell’s culture free test. Results indicated that inspection time in various tasks all showed trends of decreasing with increasing of ages. However, there were different speed of processing and change of development in the different tasks: the digital inspection time was longest in all tasks and the component of Chinese character inspection time was the shortest. From 7 year olds to 11 year olds, the line inspection time decreased slowly, while digital inspection time decreased quickly. No differences had been found between the sexes in different inspection time tasks. Experiments had showed that although inspection time of children is moderately correlated with intelligence test scores, the strength of the correlation between inspection time of children and intelligence test scores is attenuated relatively after controlling age factor. Correlation between inspection time of children and intelligence test scores is influenced by different inspection time tasks: digital inspection time task is sensitive to age variance, while line inspection time task is sensitive to within-group variance. Experiments also displayed correlation between faster inspection time groups, slower inspection time groups and intelligence test scores. Results showed that slower inspection time of children was significantly correlated with intelligence test scores , while faster inspection time of children and intelligence test scores were unrelated after controlling age factor. This finding suggested that worst performance (i.e., slower inspection time ) was a better predictor of IQ than best performance (i.e., faster inspection time)
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    MEMORY EFFECT OF BANNER WEB-AD
    Wang-Yong,--Ma-Mouchao,--Lei-Li,--Ding-Xiaqi
    . 2003, 35 (06): 830-834.  
    Abstract   PDF (139KB) ( 1325 )
    The limited size of banner web-ad and the netusers’ inclination of neglecting the banners make people doubt about the banner web-ad’s effect. Because of this, there exists two kinds of charge model which counts on pageview-rate or click-through-rate individually. The questions behind are: is there Ad-memory from browsing only? What is the concrete difference between the memory effect derived from browse-only and click-through actions? By using fuzzy measurement and statistical method, the netusers’ memory to the banner web-ads they browsed or clicked were measured. The result showed that there does exist memory under browsing only. And the memory effect cannot be improved by increasing the repeated browsing times to the same banner on different web-pages. The ad-memory of those who clicked the banner is about 1.4~1.5 times as much as those who only browsed the banner
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    LOGCONTRAST METHOD FOR EQUATING TEST BASED ON IRT
    Ding-Shuliang-,-Xiong-Jianhua-,-Mao-Mengmeng
    . 2003, 35 (06): 835-841.  
    Abstract   PDF (259KB) ( 992 )
    There are a lot of polytomous item response theory models known as devide-by-total. The equating test for these models is very difficult, because hardly can one to find out quite accurately initial values of the equating coefficients. Lack of the accuracy of the initial values leads to the Haebara approach, Stocking_Lord approach, Symmetric Relative Entropy approach to fail for equating tests under these models. A new equating method, Logcontrast approach, is introduced in this paper. This approach has some advantages for these models, such as the robustness for choicing the initial values of the iteration, fast convergent, and accurate result. And Logcontrast equating approach could supply quite accurate initial values for the rest of the equating methods mentioned above. Moreover, Logcontrast approach generalized and impoved the logit method for equating the dichotomous items
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    totle contents
    . 2003, 35 (06): 842-849.  
    Abstract   PDF (159KB) ( 782 )
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