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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 35 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    ATTENTIONAL CONTROL AND PERCEPTUAL GROUPING PROCESSES IN SHORT-TERM MEMORY
    Ban Yan,Wang Su
    . 2003, 35 (03): 285-290.  
    Abstract   PDF (145KB) ( 2357 )
    The present study examined the effects of dual task emphases on perceptual grouping processes in short-term memory. Two groups of 24 undergraduate students participated in the free recall and serial recall experiments. The memory materials were non-verbal visual spatial patterns. They were perceptually grouped by color into two types of memory list: the grouped list and ungrouped list. Subjects were asked to memorize all the items in a memory list first and then make a free recall or serial recall on an answer sheet. A concurrent tone-monitoring task was performed at either memory encoding or retrieval phase. There were three different types of dual-task instructions emphasizing the memory task, tone-monitoring task, and both separately. The results showed that the dual-task emphasis at encoding phase only affected the perceptual grouping process in free recall, not that in serial recall; while the dual-task emphasis at retrieval phase only affected the perceptual grouping process in serial recall, not that in free recall. The results suggest that the perceptual grouping processes in short-term memory might be under attentional control at both encoding and retrieval phases, but its locus and manifestation may vary with the type of memory task
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    INHIBITORY PROCESSES IN THE RECOGNITION OF HOMOPHONE MEANINGS IN CHINESE
    Zhang-Yaxu,Wang-Li,Shu-Hua
    . 2003, 35 (03): 291-299.  
    Abstract   PDF (210KB) ( 1537 )
    A participant self-paced word-by-word moving window paradigm was used to investigate the fate of inappropriate meanings of Chinese disyllable homophones once their appropriate meanings were selected and enhanced by sentence context. Both balanced and biased homophones were included in the present study. The differences on relative frequencies of alternative meanings are smaller for the balanced homophones than for the biased ones. Forty participants were asked to read a discourse, which was composed of three sentences and coherent in meanings. In repeated condition, a word in the first sentence was homophonic to a word in the third sentence such that a homophone was presented twice. In non-repeated condition, participants read almost the same discourses as those used in repeated condition with only one exception: The homophone on its first presentation in repeated condition was replaced with a non-homophone control word in non-repeated condition. The repeatedness effects were defined by longer reading time of the homophone on its second presentation and/or its continuous regions in repeated condition than that in non-repeated condition. The repeatedness effects were found only for balanced homophones: The reading time for the region just after the homophone on its second presentation was longer in repeated condition than in the non-repeated condition, suggesting that the inappropriate meanings of balanced homophones were inhibited after the appropriate ones had been selected. Neither simple inhibition nor passive decay hypotheses can explain these findings. However, the visual homophone meaning recognition (VHMR) model, which proposed both conflict monitoring and inhibitory control modules, can explain these findings well. In addition, the repeatedness effects were observed only in the participants with faster reading speed, suggesting that it was the efficient inhibition of irrelevant information during reading that promoted the reading speed.
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    THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SEMANTICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE SPEECH PRODUCTION OF CHINESE
    Zhuang Jie,Zhou Xiaolin
    . 2003, 35 (03): 300-308.  
    Abstract   PDF (195KB) ( 1560 )
    Three sets of experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between semantic activation (lexical selection) and phonological encoding in the speech production of Chinese. The issue of whether semantic activation and phonological encoding is interactive or discrete can be fragmented further into whether there is multiple phonological activation and whether there is feedback from phonological activation to lemma and semantic representation. Experiments 1 and 2 employed a picture-word interference paradigm in which a Chinese character was superimposed on a picture. In Experiment 1, picture naming was delayed both by a character semantically related to the picture name and by a homophonic character of the semantic competitor. In Experiment 2, naming of the semantically related character and its homophone was both facilitated by the picture. These results were consistent with the interactive view that phonological encoding does not wait until lemma selection is finished and phonological information of both the target word and its close semantic competitors is activated in speech production. Experiment 3 used a semantic categorization task in which the difficulty of categorization was varied across three sub-experiments. Subjects were asked to make speeded semantic judgment to pictures onto which characters semantically related to the pictures or characters homophonic to the picture names were superimposed. Facilitatory effects were observed for the semantic condition but no effect was observed for the homophone condition. Thus phonological activation had no feedback influence on the semantic activation of the picture, consistent with the modular view. These findings suggest that the issue of multiple phonological activations and issue of phonological feedback to lemma and semantics should be differentiated in theories of speech production. While the modular view could accept the suggestion of multiple phonological activation, the interactive view has more difficulties in accommodating to the present findings
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    A STUDY ON CHINESE AND ENGLISH SEMANTIC ACCESS WITH ERP TECHNOLOGY
    Li-Rongbao,Peng-Danling,Guo-Taome
    . 2003, 35 (03): 309-316.  
    Abstract   PDF (266KB) ( 1577 )
    This study approached the bilingual representation with ERP (event-related potentials) technology. Comparisons were made for ERP amplitudes and latencies of P190 and N400 elicited by the last word of the semantically congruous and incongruous sentences in the conditions of within- and between-language integration during the 500ms after it was presented. The result suggested that P190 represented the effect of lexical processing which was different between English and Chinese, while N400 represented the effect of semantic processing in which Chinese and English shared the same pattern. The result indicated that bilinguals’ two languages are represented separately at lexical level but commonly at semantic level
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    THE “SAME” PRIMING EFFECT OF SAME-DIFFERENT JUDGMENT UNDER DIFFERENT ISIS
    Zhang-Zhiguang,Xuan-Yuming,Fu-Xiaolan
    . 2003, 35 (03): 317-322.  
    Abstract   PDF (200KB) ( 1121 )
    In the present study, two experiments were conducted to test the sequential effect of same-different judgment under different ISIs. Two stimuli were successively presented for comparison on each trial. A 2 ( the response types of preceding trial: same, different)×2 ( the response types of present trial: same, different)×6 (ISIs: 100ms, 200ms, 300ms, 400ms, 500ms, 600ms) within-subjects design was used. 21 undergraduates (11 females and 10 males) participated in this study. The results showed that the trials preceded by “same” trials were significantly faster than trials preceded by “different” trials in all conditions. This is called “same” priming effect. The results supported the dual-process model of same-different judgment and indicated that the dual processes work serially
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    ROLE OF SENTENCE BOUNDARIES AND BUFFER TIME IN PRIMING THE INTEGRATION OF BACKGROUND INFORMATION
    Mo-Lei,Zhao-Dongmei
    . 2003, 35 (03): 323-332.  
    Abstract   PDF (192KB) ( 1350 )
    This research was designed to explore the role of sentence boundaries and buffer time in priming the integration of background information during reading process. Three experiments were administered. Ss were 198 university students The on-line window display technique was used and the Ss were asked to read 14 discourses which included the consistent version and inconsistent version. The time of reading the target sentences and responding to the probe words in different conditions were analyzed. In Experiment 1,the research made by Guzman & Klin in 2000 was replicated under the condition with Chinese materials. And it was further explored whether only the sentence completion could prime the on-line information integration. The results showed that the difference of the times both in reading the target line and in responding the probe approached significant level between the consistent condition and inconsistent condition under the condition of only sentence completion. It was indicated that background information integration was primed immediately during the course of reading the target line.In Experiment 2, it was examined whether the results which indicated the buffer time could prime the information integration on line in the experiment by Guzman & Klin in 2000 mixed the effect of sentence completion. The results showed that adding the conjunction to the end of target sentence could become the cue of sentence completion and immediately prime the integration. It was indicated that the conclusion got by Guzman & Klin was doubtful. In Experiment 3, it was further explored whether only the buffer time was sufficient to prime the background information integration on line without the sentence completion cue. The result showed that only the buffer time could not prime the on-line information integration. It can be concluded according to this research that the factor of sentence completion can prime the on-line background information integration during reading course and the buffer time can not do so
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    SENTENCE PROMINENCE’S FUNCTION OF DISAMBIGUITY FOR CHINESE HOMOPHONE
    Zhong-Xiaobo,Lu-Shinan
    . 2003, 35 (03): 333-339.  
    Abstract   PDF (167KB) ( 1134 )
    This research, by conducting acoustic features analysis and perception experiments on 10 speakers’ speech material which contained two couples of Chinese homophones (“qu(4)shi(4)”(“interesting thing”or “dying out”) and “sheng(1)xue(2)” (“acousics” or “entering a higher school ”)), has found that it is the sentence prominence, other than the stress, that disambiquite the two couples of homophones. This result means that sentence prominence can disambiquite some Chinese homophones by emphysizing some syllables of these homophones
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    THE INFLUENCE OF COARTICUALATION ON SYLLABLE PERCEPTION IN UTTERANCE
    Zhou-Xunyi,Wang-Bei,Yang-Yufang,Li-Xiaoqing
    . 2003, 35 (03): 340-344.  
    Abstract   PDF (152KB) ( 1106 )
    The perception difference of syllables caused by co-articulation effect was studied through similarity perception experiments, with college students as subjects. The results showed that co-articulation effect caused variations in segment. Furthermore, the variations were mainly affected by vowel of the syllable just before the target syllable and consonant of the syllable just after the target syllable. To the syllable in different sentence context, the perception similarity is more significantly influenced by suprasegmental variations than by co-articulation effect
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    REPRESENTATION FORMATS FOR ADDITION AND MULTIPLICATION FACTS
    Zhou-Xinlin,Dong-Qi
    . 2003, 35 (03): 345-351.  
    Abstract   PDF (154KB) ( 1497 )
    In the field of cognitive arithmetic, the representation format for addition and multiplication facts is one of the most important problems. Researchers argued that generally there is a single-format representation for addition and multiplication facts. A new hypothesis was proposed in the present study. The hypothesis emphasized that people basically develop visual-Arabic codes for addition facts and auditory-verbal codes for multiplication facts, which can be called hypothesis of dissociated representation for addition and multiplication facts. In experimental research, undergraduates were asked to solve one-digit addition and multiplication problems (e.g., 2+3,2×3) in which the operands were presented with Arabic digits(such as 1~9) or Chinese number( such as 壹~玖). There was much variation for the two physical formats of number in the visual dimension, but was invariable auditory dimension. According to the hypothesis, the manipulation of physical faces on number would bring much more influences on children’s solving addition problems. The experimental results were consistent with the prediction. Importantly, the result can’t be explained in terms of the relative difficulty level of Arabic-digit addition and multiplication. Present research supports Campbell’s complex-coding hypothesis, however, giving some constraints to it and further development
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    THE PRIMING EFFECT OF 3 EMOTION MODELS BY PHOTO
    Zheng-Xifu
    . 2003, 35 (03): 352-357.  
    Abstract   PDF (187KB) ( 3031 )
    This article studied the priming effect of 4 emotion models, We selected 240 undergraduates, and broke them into 4 groups, 3 of them were experimental, and one is control. We brought the photos of pleasure, fear and sadness to the experimental groups, and brought the neutral one to control group. And then inspected the station of 4 groups. Results are obvious, the priming effect by photo is clear, degree of experimental groups exceed control groups, especially pleasure and sadness. The priming effect changed with time, and passive emotion decreased sharply with time, and active emotion increased obviously in a short time(5 minutes). This might be caused by mental promotion
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    THE STEREOTYPE’S CONSCIOUS INHIBITION
    Wang-Pei,Cen Xuefeng
    . 2003, 35 (03): 358-361.  
    Abstract   PDF (122KB) ( 1785 )
    Experimental method was adopted, this study probed into the stereotype’s conscious inhibition. Ss were 25 freshmen in Northwest Normal University, China. The results showed:⑴Sex stereotype can influence other social category such as occupation judgments. ⑵The stereotype effect is deep-rooted and is hardly inhibited by consciousness. ⑶The individual information composed of traits, which is opposed to stereotype, may partly weaken the stereotype effect. ⑷Stereotype may parallel to the processing of the individual information
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    CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ EVALUATIONS ON TEACHER PERFORMANCE
    Chai-Yonghong,Lin Chongde,Chen Xuefeng
    . 2003, 35 (03): 362-369.  
    Abstract   PDF (268KB) ( 1629 )
    By means of open-ended survey, critical incident interview and theorist analysis, this paper established the construction of teacher performance. Then the authors tested the construction of students’ evaluations on teacher performance by confirmative factor analysis. The results showed that teacher performance included 6 first-stairs factors: professional ethics, job conscientiousness, assisting and cooperation, teaching efficiency, teaching value and teacher-student interaction. These 6 factors form two second-stairs factors, the first three constituted contextual performance, and the others constituted task performance
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    PECEPTION , EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE AND BEHAVIOR TENDENCY TOWARD THE MESSAGE OF PARENTS’ DISCIPLINES
    Chen jun,Zhang Jijia
    . 2003, 35 (03): 370-378.  
    Abstract   PDF (196KB) ( 2247 )
    Using scene imitating technique, the paper explored the perception of the parents’ feelings,the emotional experience and the possible behavior tendency of the children when the parents sent out the messages of discipline. The subjects were 616 middle-school students and primary school pupils. The results showed that most of the subjects could distinguish the parents’ emotion. The efficacy of the four kinds of disciplines were different: the first was induction, the next was the message of “I” which expressed the parents’ puzzle and worry about the children’ behaviors, the third was the message of parents’ disappointment toward the children’ behaviors, but the message of great indignation and criticism would rouse the hostilities. The discipline message sent out by the fathers would cause the subjects’ more active emotional experience and obedience behaviors than by the mothers. There were significant differences in the ages and sexes. The females produced more positive emotional experience and submissive behaviors. The primary school pupils exhibited acceptance and obedience tendency,but the middle-school students appeared to be resistance to parents’ disciplines. The emotional experience and the possible behavior tendency of the children toward the messages of parents’ discipline were decided by the cognition of the children,positive cognition would lead to positive emotional experience and behavior tendency
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    PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION OF ADOLESCENTS’ SMOKING BEHAVIOR
    . 2003, 35 (03): 379-386.  
    Abstract   PDF (183KB) ( 2090 )
    573 7th, 8th, 10th, 11th graders were selected from two general middle schools in Beijing to explore the effects of prevention and intervention program on adolescents’ smoking behavior. Two classes students were randomly selected from each grade and each school, then students from one class were assigned to the intervention groups, and students of the other class were assigned to the control groups. The intervention groups were implemented by a prevention and intervention program of adolescents’ smoking behavior titled “Stay Away From Tobacco” which included four components: Health education, cognitions about smoking behavior, identifying and resisting peer pressure and lure of media advertisement, 7 sessions, 45minutes per session, one session per week. The subjects were asked to report their smoking behavior in the last month, their perceived harm and benefit of smoking cigarette, resistance skill before and after intervention. The results showed: (1) the rate which the intervention group subjects smoked in the last month decreased 5.2% after intervention, and the control group subjects increased 2.3%; (2) The effects of intervention were most significant on smoking behavior of occasional cigarette users; (3) The intervention group subjects reported more harm and less benefit of smoking cigarette after intervention, and control group subjects reported less harm and more benefit of smoking cigarette after intervention; (4) The effects of program on improving resistance skill of intervention group subjects were significant; (5) The smoking behavior of the intervention group subjects after intervention were predicated by the subjects’ cognitions on harm and benefit of smoking after intervention; (6) intervention can affect adolescents’ smoking behavior through Adolescents’ cognition on harm and benefit of smoking cigarettes
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    THE DIFFERENCE OF SHAME PRONENESS AND COPING STYLE TOWARDS SHAME STORIES
    Qian-Mingyi,Liu-Jia,Zhang-Zheyu
    . 2003, 35 (03): 387-392.  
    Abstract   PDF (156KB) ( 1626 )
    This study aimed to probe the relationship between the emotion of shame and coping style. Totally 100 college students were asked to evaluate the intensity of shame they experienced according to the 9 stories (5 that mostly caused the subjects to be shameful were selected for analysis) provided by the experimenter and assessed the possibilities of using 17 coping methods in the story situations. At the same time, the differences between high and low shame proneness group were compared. The results of the percent of subjects using the coping methods showed that accepting the result, confronting the problem directly and waiting for feeling’s to change were the methods college students prefered to use. College students were not inclined to use the methods of denial and withdrawal. The result of MONOVA showed that the high shame prone individuals were more likely to cope stressors by withdrawing, hiding feelings, praying and waiting for change compared with low shame prone individuals. The low shame prone individuals prefered to seek social support when meeting stressor
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    BINAURAL HEARING AT 95dB CLICK OF CAT
    An-Yuxiang,Tang-Hao,Nie-Yingxue,Han-Baocai
    . 2003, 35 (03): 393-396.  
    Abstract   PDF (151KB) ( 945 )
    To observe the expression of binaural hearing at high intensive click on the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in cats,so as to explore the effects of cross—hearing produced by 95dB click on the checked ear and the interference produced by steady white noise(SWN) and the click on binaural ears.〔Method〕 Take the amplitude of ABR for detective index,to observe and to compare the change of amplitude of ABR evoked by 95dB click when contralateral ear was loaded by 75dB SWN between before and after the damage of the cochlea.〔Result〕⑴ we found the 75dB SWN can increase the amplitude of the wave pⅢ and wave pⅣ of ABR evoked by 95dB click obviously before the damage of the cochlea(p<0.01=.⑵after the cochlea was damaged the 75dB SWN had no effect on the amplitude of ABR evoked by 95dB click(p>0.05).⑶before the cochlea was damaged the amplitude of wave pⅣ of ABR evoked by 95dB click when contralateral ear was loaded by 75dB SWN less then after the cochlea was damaged the amplitude of wave pⅣ of ABR evoked by 95dB click (p<0.05=. 〔Conclusion〕The cross—hearing had an expression on the wave pⅢ and wave pⅣ of ABR and the binaural interference produced by the 95dB click with 75dB SWN only had expression on wave pⅣ of ABR when the intensity of click was at 95dB
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    THE INFLUENCE OF IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT ON CHANGE OF ATTITUDE AFTER FORCED COMPLIANCE
    Song Guangwen,Chen Qishan
    . 2003, 35 (03): 397-403.  
    Abstract   PDF (164KB) ( 1391 )
    The purpose of this experimental study was to verify the experimental result of cognitive consequence of forced compliance (Festinger,L. ,Carlsmith,J M ,1959). 194 university freshmen participated in a test and 40 were selected as subjects with 20 as a high self-monitoring group and 20 as a low self-monitoring group. The results showed that the 2 groups exhibited different attitude changes after forced compliance that did not support the result of Festinger and Coarlsmith’s experiment in 1959. This indicated that the impression management-ability of self-monitoring had notable effect on change of attitude after forced compliance. The results of the research didn’t imply that the theory of impression management could replace or deny the theory of imbalance of cognition which could well explain attitude of individual and its change, it just indicated that the explanation of complicated social behavior could not be concluded from one psychological factor of the individual. Researches should not only study the factor of the individual but also the effect of the environment. This result enriched the content of the theory of social cognition
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    CONSTRUCT DIMENSION OF THE ENTERPRISE STAFF’S PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT
    Chen-Jiazhou1,-Ling-Wenquan,-Fang-Liluo
    . 2003, 35 (03): 404-410.  
    Abstract   PDF (168KB) ( 2222 )
    With the investigation of total 1088 staff at two samples first in 6, then in 4 enterprises, employed by the psychological contract questionnaire developed by researchers, the construct dimension of psychological contract had been discriminated. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) at one-sample participants revealed that both staff’s obligation and organization’s obligation contains two factor dimensions. One is called realistic obligation, the other is called developmental obligation. Two dimension constructs had been testified in the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) at another-sample populations. The construct, content, and nomination of psychological contract dimension and their differences compared to western results were discussed at the end
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    EVALUATING THE STRUCTURE OF VOCATIONAL INTEREST IN CHINA
    Liu Changjiang,James-Rounds
    . 2003, 35 (03): 411-418.  
    Abstract   PDF (230KB) ( 1322 )
    Holland’s RIASEC typology of vocational interest has a major influence on vocational researches worldwide. However, so far, no research in China examined the hypothesis of RIASEC types. The study tested 5 hypotheses of RIASEC types, two of which were proposed by the authors. The study searched for the researches which were related to Holland’s theory and conducted in China, and selected 9 matrices of RIASEC. The results indicated that Holland’s circular model did not fit the matrices, and space configuration of RIASEC did not represent Holland’s model. Implications on the structure of and types of vocational interest were discussed
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    REGRESSION TOWARD THE MEAN IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING AND THE REOCCURRENCE PROBABILITY OF EXTREME SCORES
    Wan-Zhonglin,Hou Jietai
    . 2003, 35 (03): 419-425.  
    Abstract   PDF (224KB) ( 1258 )
    The regression toward the mean and other related characteristics in psychological testing were examined. The relations of reoccurrence probability of extreme scores to the distribution of true score, reliability, and the cutoff value of extreme scores are also scrutinized. Results showed that the regression toward the mean effect is larger when the reliability is lower or when the cutoff value is more extreme. For normally distributed data, the reoccurrence probability is related to reliability exponentially and to cutoff values linearly. Methods to avoid the regression toward the mean artifact are also generally discussed
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