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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    30 March 2004, Volume 36 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    VISUOSPATIAL RELATIONS JUDGMENT BASED ON CLUE
    Zhou Ronggang, Zhang Kan
    2004, 36 (02):  127-132. 
    Abstract ( 1593 )   PDF (189KB) ( 1208 )  
    It has been hypothesized that there are two different kinds of spatial-relation representations in human brain: categorical and coordinate spatial relations representations. With integrating categorical spatial relation and metric/coordinate spatial relation, this study examined the visuospatial relations judgment based on clue. Experiment 1 was conducted to test the effect from different degree on visuospatial relations judgment. It was found that the effect was not significant. The results of Experiment 2 with one clue showed that when target was input of scope made of central clue and borderline, the judgment was faster than target was output of the scope. The input/output effect was not confirmed by experiment 3&4, which were carried out with double clue slope clue (k=0.38) on visuospatial relations judgment.
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    VISUAL COMPLETION ON DIFFERENT DEPTH PLANES AND DIFFERENT SURFACES
    Shen Mowei, Shi Zhuanghua, Zhang Guangqiang, Zhang Feng
    2004, 36 (02):  133-138. 
    Abstract ( 2359 )   PDF (271KB) ( 1344 )  
    Visual completion is constantly used by the visual system to deal with image data that is missing, ambiguous or corrupted. In recent years, there have been a large number of researches on visual completion. Although many researches reported that visual completion is based on Gestalt law in a common depth surface, little is known about the visual completion process among different depth surfaces. In this study fragments of Chinese characters were used to investigate the effects of binocular disparity, color and occlusion in visual completion. The results indicated that binocular disparity and color hinder the visual completion process. Occlusion facilitates global visual integration, and that global visual integration may inhibit those separation effects when high-level perceptual processing is involved under such occlusion conditions.
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    THE ADJUST MECHANISM OF VISUAL SPATIAL ATTENTION SCALE ON P2
    Gao Wenbin, Wei Jinghan, Peng Xiaohu, Luo Yuejia
    2004, 36 (02):  139-144. 
    Abstract ( 2345 )   PDF (262KB) ( 1692 )  
    This study investigated the dynamic brain mechanisms of the visual spatial attention scale under the different attention scale. The immobile cues of three different sizes were used to eliminate the effect of the spatial location factor. The simple reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials (ERPs) was recorded. The results were that the RT to the targets under the same cue prolonged when the targets far away from the center, the target evoked P1 and N1 components were not affected by the targets location, while the amplitudes of the anterosuperior N2 showed targets location effect. The RT to the targets in the same location shortened when the cue size enlarged, the target evoked P1 and N1 were not affected by the attention scale factor, while the amplitudes of the inferoposterior P2 enlarged when the attentive region size enlarged. The results suggested that ① targets evoked P2 component was related to the processing of visual scale attention, ② the P1 and N1 components under visual attention were not involved in the attention scale, but related to the attention location processing mainly, ③ the visual scale attention was adjusted in a certain extent.
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    Experimental Dissociation of Exposure Duration’s Effect on the Attentional Blink
    Du Feng,Zhang Kan, Ge Liezhong
    2004, 36 (02):  145-153. 
    Abstract ( 2792 )   PDF (365KB) ( 2242 )  
    Three experiments focused on the relationship between the exposure duration(ED) and the Attentional Blink(AB). It was found in the first experiment that the magnitude of AB trailed off as the ED become longer. The SOA had similar effect on the AB as the ED had and the interactive effect between SOA and ED is significant either. The second experiment replicated the result pattern of the experiment one and indicate that the ED effect found in forenamed experiments is not caused by speed-up response to the Target. The experimental dissociation of the ED effect——weakening AB effect as ED prolonged disappeared——was found in the third experiment and is proved to caused by the enhanced distracters as their ED prolonged when targets and distracters share similar preattentive features. Moreover, it was evident that visual salience can accelerate the speed of processing information by guiding the attentive process to the target and finally result in weakened AB effect. The Central Interference Theory should be modified to accommodate the result of experiments.
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    THE SELF AND RETRIEVAL-INDUCED FORGETTING
    Yang Hongsheng,Zhu Ying
    2004, 36 (02):  154-159. 
    Abstract ( 2001 )   PDF (166KB) ( 1763 )  
    Retrieval-induced forgetting under self-referential processing, mother-referential processing and other-referential processing conditions was examined. Under the former two conditions no retrieval-induced forgetting was found while it existed under other-referential processing condition. Thus, memory superiority of self-referential processing and mother-referential processing to other-referential processing was confirmed with the paradigm used in retrieval-induced forgetting research. The results showed that memory material under self or mother-referential processing condition can not only be remembered more than that under other-referential processing condition, but also showed no inhibition effect on related material during retrieval in Chinese subjects. Meanwhile, it can be concluded that mother-referential processing is a boundary condition for retrieval-induced forgetting for Chinese.
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    A TEST ON THE POWER PC THEORY WITH THE PARADIGM OF COMPARING CAUSAL POWER
    Wang Moyun, Fu Xiaolan
    2004, 36 (02):  160-167. 
    Abstract ( 2172 )   PDF (275KB) ( 1327 )  
    The Power PC theory was tested by using the concentrative presentation of graph representation of information and the paradigm of comparing causal power. The participants were 233 college students. The results showed that comparative judgments of causal power of single causal relationships had the following characteristics: (a) Most judgments were in accord with the Power PC theory in the conditions of preventive causes, but conversely most judgments were not in accord with the theory in the conditions of generative causes, (b) in the condition of generative causes with simultaneous changes of the covariation coefficient and the base rate of the effect, most participants used the DP rule of probabilistic contrast model, which was not in accord with the Power PC theory, and (c) in the condition of generative causes with the change of the base rate of the effect and the constant covariation coefficient, most participants used the RP rule, which couldn’t be explained by all known theories of causal reasoning.
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    FUZZY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION ON PILOTS’ SITUATION COGNITIVE
    Liu Wei,Yuan Xiugan,Liu Zhongqi,Kang Weiyong,Ma Rui
    2004, 36 (02):  168-173. 
    Abstract ( 1800 )   PDF (205KB) ( 1291 )  
    Borrowing from the concepts and methods of environmental quality evaluation in environment science, the model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on pilots’ situation cognitive was built, and used to evaluate 6 advanced pilots’ situation cognitive. The result showed that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method on pilots’ situation cognitive can provide real, complete and reliability cognitive information of situation for pilots’ training and safety.
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    DEVELOPMENT OF THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPATIAL TRANSITIVE REASONING ABILITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
    Bi Hongyan, Fang Ge, Weng Xuchu
    2004, 36 (02):  174-178. 
    Abstract ( 2701 )   PDF (147KB) ( 1666 )  
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the development of elementary schoolers in two-dimensional spatial transitive inference and analyze the strategies children used during reasoning. At the same time, the mental model theory was examined. The participants were 72 children randomly selected from one middle-level primary school including three groups aged 7, 9 and 11with half boys and half girls in each group. The tests were carried out individually. The methodology of the study was characterized by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results showed that: (1) Children’s ability of the two-dimensional spatial transitive reasoning increased significantly. The 7-year-olds had begun to bourgeon this kind of reasoning ability, and the 9- and 11-year-olds were in the process of increasing fast; (2) The number of children using the model constructing strategy to resolve problems became more and more with age. Most of the 11-year-olds were able to use it. Even if children had used the model constructing strategy, the difference among task difficulty caused by the number of models isn’t reflected by their reasoning performance; (3) Even if children had used the model constructing strategy, the ability of using this strategy effectively was not high.
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    MULTI-DIMENSIONAL LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE (LMX) AND ITS IMPACT ON TASK PERFORMANCE AND CONTEXTUAL PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES
    Wang Hui, Niu Xiongying, Kenneth S Law
    2004, 36 (02):  179-185. 
    Abstract ( 2479 )   PDF (176KB) ( 1974 )  
    Two studies were conducted to explore the construct of leader-member exchange (LMX) and its impact on task performance and contextual performance of employees in Chinese context. The survey data was analyzed with exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and hierarchical regression model (HRM). The results showed that LMX was a multi-dimensional construct comprised of affect, loyalty, contribution, and professional respect dimensions. Both unidimensional LMX and multi-dimensional LMX have significant power on predicting task performance and contextual performance of employees, while the predicting power of multi-dimensional LMX was larger that that of unidimensional LMX. Limitations and future research were discussed.
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    STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL TESTING: CUTOFF CRITERIA FOR GOODNESS OF FIT INDICES AND CHI-SQUARE TEST
    Wen Zhonglin,Hau Kit-Tai,Herbert W Marsh
    2004, 36 (02):  186-194. 
    Abstract ( 2986 )   PDF (253KB) ( 4464 )  
    Recent cutoff criteria for goodness of fit indices in structural equation analysis proposed by Hu and Bentler (1998, 1999) were discussed. After reviewing their recommended 7 indexes, we demonstrated the inappropriateness of their single index or 2-index combinational rules. Subsequently we proposed that a new rule based on Chi-square test at a certain extremely low significant level was more useful for their purposes. Comparing with Hu and Bentler's rules, we showed that our proposed rule is better and more appropriate. Finally, we discussed guidelines on ways to evaluate a fitted model or to compare alternative models.
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    MULTIVARIATE GENERALIZABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE COLLEGE ENTRANCE COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION
    Yang Zhiming,Chang Lei,Ma Shiye
    2004, 36 (02):  195-200. 
    Abstract ( 2506 )   PDF (199KB) ( 1579 )  
    The Chinese College Entrance Comprehensive Examination (CCECE), which consists of Geography, History, Political Studies, Biology, Chemistry and Physics, is a comprehensive achievement test to measure an examinee's academic readiness for tertiary education. This study used multivariate generalizability theory to estimate generalizability (reliability) coefficients of the CCECE. The G-study and D-study results suggested that the generalizability coefficient of the whole test was 0.78, which was considered moderate but acceptable. Doubling the items for all the subtests would increase generalizability coefficient to 0.88. Except for geography and political studies, reliability estimates for the subtests were acceptable. However, a composite universe score approach was not ideal both because variance distributions among subtests were inconsistent with the planned score weighting and because correlations among some subtests were low. For example, chemistry and history accounted for more variance than other subtests combined. Among the problematic subtests, geography contributed negatively to reliability of the whole test.
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    CONDITIONED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION AND THE EXPRESSION OF FOS-PROTEIN IN THE HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEI
    Li Jie,Lin Wenjuan,Zheng Li,Li Bo
    2004, 36 (02):  201-207. 
    Abstract ( 1837 )   PDF (289KB) ( 1164 )  
    Although there have been many reports that conditioned immunosuppression (CIS) can be achieved through behavioral conditioning techniques, little is known about the neural mechanisms of CIS. In this study, cyclophosphamide (CY) was used as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) with saccharin as the conditioned stimulus (CS) in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm. Both CTA and CIS as assessed by peripheral leukocyte and lymphocyte were examined by one re-exposure to CS at intervals of 5, 30 days after two trials of CS-UCS pairing. The effect of one re-exposure to CS on the expression of FOS-protein in the hypothalamus nucleus was also observed correspondingly. The results showed that CTA occurred on both day 5 and day 30 after conditioning but CIS occurred only on day 5 after conditioning. It was further found that some nuclei of hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in particular, showed high expression of FOS-protein on the fifth day after one re-exposure to CS, but there was no or little expression of FOS-protein on the thirtieth day. By comparing the results of the fifth day with the thirtieth day,it is suggested that PVN of the hypothalamus is an important nuclear for modulating the response of CIS in the CNS.
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    THE AMELIORATION OF NIMODIPINE ON CHEMICAL LEARNING AND MEMORY DYSFUNCTION RESULTS FROM INTRAHIPPOCAMPAL INJECTION OF CaCI2 AND SCOPOLAMINE
    Zhang Zigui, Du Hongyan, Wu Fumei
    2004, 36 (02):  208-211. 
    Abstract ( 1562 )   PDF (211KB) ( 1141 )  
    The influence of nimodipine(ip) on chemical learning and memory dysfunction from intrahippocampal injection of CaCI2 and scopolamine were investigated,and the effects of three agents(CaCI2 , scopolamine and nimodipine )on the incorporation of 3H—Leu into hippocampal symaptosomes were observed.The results showed that intrahippocampal injection of CaCI2 and scopolamine could cause chemical learning and memory dysfunction significantly (p<0.01 and p<0.05), nimodipine could ameliorate chemical learning and memory dysfunction obviously (p<0.05 and p<0.01), CaCI2 and scopolamine could reduce incorporation of 3H—Leu into hippocampal symaptosomes apparently (p<0.01and p<0.001), but,in vitro,it couldn’t antagonize the reduction of incorporation of 3H—Leu into hippocampal symaptosomes resulted from these two agents .These results suggested that there might exist other mechanism of Ca2+ channel antagonist nimodipine on ameliorating memory impairment instead of improving synaptosomal protein syntheses.
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    MODERNISM, POSTMODERNISM IN WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY AND BEYOND
    Ye Haosheng
    2004, 36 (02):  212-218. 
    Abstract ( 2503 )   PDF (153KB) ( 1787 )  
    This paper considered confrontations and conflicts between modernism and postmodernism in western psychology, describing the characteristics of modernist psychology and postmodern psychology, and searching the way to be beyond them. Almost all the schools of psychology, appearing after the establishment of Wundt” experimental psychology, except postmodern psychology, are belonged to modernism, including not only mainstream psychology, but also humanist approach in psychology. The characteristics of modernism in psychology are those: (1) it pays exclusively attention to the value of science and believes that we can uncover the objective truth about human psychology and behavior by scientific methods; (2) it accepts empiricism as its epistemological foundation and emphasizes observation and experimentation in psychological investigation; (3) it puts the individual in the center of its attention, and individual mind becomes the subject matter of psychology. In contrast, the postmodern approach in psychology demonstrates its characteristics as following: (1) postmodern approach deconstructs the modernist psychology by criticizing its foundationalism, essentialism and dualism, and shows itself as anti-realism and anti-scientism. (2) it takes social constructionism as its epistemological foundation, and explains knowledge, truth and meaning as a product of a social construction. (3) modernist psychology has typically regarded language as the passive vehicle for our thought and emotions, but from the point of view of postmodernism, language is more than simply a way of expressing ourselves. In addition, postmodern approach claims three other kinds of shift in the practices of psychology, that is, the shift from individual to relationships, from an objective world to a world of social construction, and from empiricist methodology to discourse analysis. In author’s opinion, although there are sharp differences between the two approaches, there are still some common places between them on which we may integrate them and beyond their opposites. We may take the scientific realism as the epistemological foundation for the integration. For the purpose of the integration, the attitude of the openness, co-operation and tolerance are needed.
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    Neural correlates of insight
    Luo Jing
    2004, 36 (02):  219-234. 
    Abstract ( 2571 )   PDF (375KB) ( 2068 )  
    Since the work of Wolfgang Kohler, the process of insight in problem solving has been the subject of considerable investigation. Yet, the neural correlates of insight remain unknown. As the sudden and unexpected change of one’s point of view that illuminates a short and elegant solution path to a particular problem, insight means forming of novel, efficient associations among the old concepts and breaking of the unwarranted mental set. Subjects were imaged by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when they were solving the riddles and puzzles. Results showed activities in frontal, temporal, and parietal areas to be associated with the process of insight. These results, together with other evidences, suggested that (1) hippocampus mediated the process of forming of novel, efficient associations in insight; (2) a spatial neural network including bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus mediated the representational change in insight; and (3) anterior cingulate cortex and left lateral prefrontal cortex mediated the breaking of unwarranted mental set in insight.
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    MENTAL PROCESS AND BRAIN MECHANISM OF INSIGHT: COMMENTS ON LUO’S NEURAL CORRELATES OF INSIGHT
    Fu Xiaolan
    2004, 36 (02):  234-236. 
    Abstract ( 513 )   PDF (136KB) ( 1324 )  
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    A dawn to explore mystery of neural correlate of insight
    Luo Yuejia
    2004, 36 (02):  238-239. 
    Abstract ( 442 )   PDF (93KB) ( 1187 )  
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    LOGICAL ANALYSES OF TWO PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS ABOUT EXAMPLE LEARNING
    Shao Guanghua
    2004, 36 (02):  240-246. 
    Abstract ( 2350 )   PDF (174KB) ( 1615 )  
    Two experiment reports concerning worked example studying was logically analyzed and points out that the Ross's experiment design is rationality and Mo lei's experiment design is not rationality. It was also pointed out that the conclusion “the different superficial alike of the example and problem in surface story lines would not only affect the principle's access, but also can affect the principle's use” is not still believed. We ought to restore Ross's results“similar story line only have little or no effects on the use”. Finally the exact way of the experiment design was pointed out.
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    COMPREHENDING THE BASIC LOGIC OF THE DESIGNING OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT: DISCUSS WITH SHAO GUANGHUA
    Mo Lei
    2004, 36 (02):  247-252. 
    Abstract ( 1868 )   PDF (153KB) ( 1639 )  
    This paper analyzed the two researches made by Ross on the influence of superficial similarities between examples and test items both on the access and the use of principles and the research made by Mo Lei in 2000 which turned down the conclusion made by Ross that superficial story line had no influence on the use of principle. It was pointed out that the research made by Mo in 2000 had thorough foundation. According to the design and the results of Mo’s experiment, it could be concluded logically that the superficial story line could influence the use of principles. It was just because the author didn’t know the basic design logic of psychological experiment and didn’t comprehend the design logic of Mo’s experiment that the paper by Shao Guanghua raised the criticism of Mo’s research. And this criticism was groundless.
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