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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 36 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE TIME COURSE OF SEMANTIC, ORTHOGRAPHIC AND PHONOLOGICAL ACTIVATION IN CHINESE WORD PRODUCTION
    Zhang Qingfang,Yang Yufang
    . 2004, 36 (01): 1-8.  
    Abstract   PDF (206KB) ( 2242 )
    The time course of semantic, orthographic and phonologic activation in Chinese speech production was explored with picture-word interference paradigm. The semantic inhibition effect was found ranging from the SOAs of -300 ms to 0 ms. The orthographic facilitation effect occurred from SOAs of -100 ms to 100 ms. The phonological facilitation effect appeared at SOAs of 100 ms. The results of the experiments were consistent with the views of the interactive activation theory. The experiments probed the orthographic activation and phonological activation independently. The important role of orthography and whether the participants used the strategies unconsciously in the Chinese word production was discussed.
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    MECHANISM ON TIME SHIFTS IN NARRATIVES
    Leng Ying, Mo Lei, Han Yingchun, Huang Hao
    . 2004, 36 (01): 9-14.  
    Abstract   PDF (156KB) ( 1313 )
    Using moving window display technique and recognition probes technique, two experiments examined whether the lapses of time adverbs or adverbials are sufficient to time shifts in narratives and thus tested the scenarios model by Anderson and strong iconicity assumption by Zwaan. Experiment 1 investigated the condition on making time shifts by the lapses of time phrases; Experiment 2 investigated whether the spans of scenarios increase had affected time shifts by incontinuous time phrases. These results demonstrated discontinuous temporal information was necessary to time shifts, but not sufficient. Discontinuous temporal information might not produce time shift until its lapse reached the ratio between the lapse of temporal information and the lapse of scenario.
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    RESEARCH ON THE CONDITION OF COORDINATING INTEGRATION IN TEXT-READING
    Wang Ruiming,Mo Lei
    . 2004, 36 (01): 15-23.  
    Abstract   PDF (174KB) ( 1414 )
    Moving window method to investigate the condition of coordinating integration in text-reading was used. Subjects were freshmen in South China Normal University. Relationship between the elaboration on a characteristic of the protagonist and subsequent target action carried out by the protagonist was Independent Variable, which had three levels in experiment 1—consistent version, coordinately consistent version, and qualified version, and which had two levels in experiment 2—coordinately consistent version and qualified version. The reading time of target sentences was analyzed with ANOVA in experiment 1, the results showed that partial inconsistence is enough and necessary condition in coordinating integration. The reading time of two target sentences in different places respectively was analyzed with Paired-Samples T Test in experiment 2, the results showed that through coordinating integration, not only the coherence of text-reading was maintained, but also the relative background information was constructed to be an information chunk, and a processing theory of bi-mechanism for text-reading was suggested, which proposed that normal reading included both flowing reading and integrating reading.
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    THE EFFECTS OF THE LAG BETWEEN TWO TASKS ON FEATURE SEARCH
    Shen Mowei,Gao Tao,Ding Haijie
    . 2004, 36 (01): 24-30.  
    Abstract   PDF (220KB) ( 1947 )
    This research focused on the pattern (serial or parallel) of visual search under the condition of dual-task with stimuli presented in RSVP stream. Participants were required to identify the unique letter in the stream of Arabic numerals (T1), and then completed a feature search task (T2). In exp1, T2 was to detect an odd-oriented ellipse among distractors which were tilted in the same direction. In exp2, T2 was to detect a red dot among grey distractors. Two experiments provided convergent evidence that the accuracy of T2 was progressively decreased as T1-T2 lag was shortened; the increase of distractors’ set size didn’t result in a deficit for the feature search task. The results showed that although the efficiency of T2 had been impaired by task-switch, feature search was still processed in a parallel pattern. However, according to dynamic control theory, the involvement of task-switch in this research should change the pattern of feature search from parallel to serial. The potential solutions for the inconsistency between dynamic control theory and the current results were discussed in detail.
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    STIMULUS-DRIVEN ATTENTIONAL CAPTURE UNDER DIFFERENT ATTENTION LOAD
    Liang Hua, Chen Xiangchuan, Zhang Daren
    . 2004, 36 (01): 31-36.  
    Abstract   PDF (156KB) ( 1896 )
    Lavie’s theory of attention load proposed that the processing load in a relevant target task determines the extent to which irrelevant distractors are processed. When perceptual load is high, the extent to which irrelevant distractors are processed decreases. We tested this theory by changing the perceptual load in target tasks and interstimulus intervals between target and distractor. We found that stimulus-driven attentional capture effect existed in both low- and high-load conditions: 333ms in low-load condition, 0~167ms in high-load condition. These results suggested that attentional capture can be observed in high-load condition at different time courses compared with that in the low-load condition.
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    THE ROLE OF PERSONAL INFLUENCE IN THE SOCIAL COMBINATION PROCESS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING:AN EXTENSION OF SDS THEORY
    He Guibing, Zhang Ping
    . 2004, 36 (01): 37-43.  
    Abstract   PDF (230KB) ( 1775 )
    The Social Decision Scheme theory did not take some important factors into account when predicting group decisions. These factors included individual social status, member orientation of individualism and collectivism, distribution of expertise, and so on. In this study, we extended SDS by constructing a Personal Influence Function (PIF) which took the above factors as key elements. In a simulated experiment of investment decision-making, the validity of the extension was tested. The results showed, when PIF combined with group preference distribution, the extended SDS could predict group decisions more effectively and accurately.
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    A COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON THE MENTAL CHARACTER OF NOVICE, PROFICIENT AND EXPERT TEACHERS
    Lian Rong
    . 2004, 36 (01): 44-52.  
    Abstract   PDF (184KB) ( 3186 )
    Aiming at understanding well about the teachers’ teaching development, we had used some scales to carry out two studies which involved with 433 and 469 subjects respectively on the teaching strategies, achievement goal orientation, personality characteristic, professional commitment and job burnout of the novice, proficient, expert teachers. The results showed that: ⑴ For the issues of teaching strategies, achievement goal orientation and personality characteristic, the expert teachers are better than proficient ones, and the proficient teachers are better than novice ones. When it’s turn to the question of professional commitment as well as job burnout, the expert teachers achieve better than proficient teachers and novice teachers while there’s no difference among the proficient teachers and novice teachers. ⑵ The main features of novice teachers are attaching importance on pre-class preparation and performance goal are their important working motivation; the proficient teachers have the main characteristics of high performance in in-class teaching strategies, the emergence of task goal as the influential motivation for work and they have the personality of easy-going, concerning about others, gregarious, tolerant. And the expert teachers proclaim the features of taking the pre-class planning of teaching strategies, after-class evaluation and reflectivity as the central part, having the personality of being stable in emotion, being rational, practical, confident and good in criticism, and the high-profile emotional commitment in the profession of teaching as well as the strong sense of professional achievement also contribute to their main features. ⑶ These three types of teachers have no differences in after-class compensation strategy, performance goal, intro- and extroversion, continuance commitment, emotional exhaustion, in other words, these are the teachers common points.
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    THE EFFECTS OF ACHIEVEMENT GOALS ON ONE'S TASK ENGAGEMENT
    Li Yanping,Guo Dejun
    . 2004, 36 (01): 53-58.  
    Abstract   PDF (144KB) ( 1767 )
    The present study manipulated subjects' mastery goal and performance goal through different statements of the purpose of the study, and investigated the effect of achievement goals on task engagement at different stages of the game. 71 middle school students participated in the study. Results showed that before and during the game, two groups had no significant difference in task engagement in the experimental game; but performance-oriented subjects expended less amount of time on the unfinished experimental game than the mastery group after the game. Results also showed that Ss in the performance group felt less enjoyment during the game, and had less interest in the game after the experiment.
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    PRESCHOOLER’S UNDERSTANDING OF “KNOWING THAT” AND “KNOWING HOW”
    Yang Xiaodong,Twila Tardif,Liu Guoxiong,Fang Fuxi
    . 2004, 36 (01): 59-64.  
    Abstract   PDF (170KB) ( 1851 )
    72 three- to five-year-old children were asked about their knowledge states at various points during two types of learning tasks. One was a declarative knowledge task about the contents of a set of drawers and the other was a procedural knowledge task about how to perform simple tricks. In both tasks, subjects were exposed to the knowledge in one of two ways – by seeing and being told about it. Their understanding of “knowing that” and “knowing how” before and after being exposed to the new knowledge, as well as identifying how they learned the knowledge, were the focus of investigation. Before accessing the new knowledge, some subjects in each age group (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) reported they “know” when they did not know at all. After exposure to the knowledge, children’s understanding of “knowing that” was better than “knowing how.” For identifying sources, 3-year-olds had great difficulty, whereas older children performed much better, with children in all age groups identifying the sources by which they were exposed to the declarative knowledge tasks better than those for the procedural knowledge tasks.
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    CHARACTERISTICS OF METAMEMORY MONITORING AND CONTROL OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES
    Zhou Chu,Liu Xiaoming,Zhang Ming
    . 2004, 36 (01): 65-70.  
    Abstract   PDF (142KB) ( 1685 )
    Compared with better-learning children,this experiment studied the level of metamemory monitoring and control of children with LD,and their developing characteristics. Also we studied the interaction between the metamemory monitoring and control. It was a 2×3×2 mixed design. The three factors were levels of materials (meaningful and meaningless associated Chinese word-pairs), grades (grade 3,4 and 5), and two types of subjects. The results showed that: (1) The ratings of the three monitoring judgments of metamemory of children with LD were significantly lower than better-learning children. (2) In the self-paced study, children with LD allocated more time on the judged difficult items, while the difference in allocation of study time between children with LD and better-learning children was significant. (3) There was interaction between metamemory monitoring and control. That was to say, children with LD allocated more time on the items which they judged difficult. (4) There were complex developing trends on the level of different metamemory monitoring and control of children with LD. Both the ratings of JOC and FOK judgments had not developed, while the rating of JOL judgment had significantly grown in grade 4 and 5. The accuracy of the three judgments of metamemory had not developed. The level of metamemory control had significantly grown from grade 3 to 5. The conclusion was that the ability of metamemory monitoring and control of children with LD was lower than better-learning children, and their metamemory ability rose with age.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY TRAITS, SUBJECTIVE STRESS, AND COPING STYLES IN ADOLESCENCE
    Li Yuhui, Zhang Jianxin
    . 2004, 36 (01): 71-77.  
    Abstract   PDF (214KB) ( 2769 )
    The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between personality traits, subjective stress, and coping styles in adolescence. On a sample of 607 subjects, ranging in age from 12 to 20 years, NEO-FFI, questionnaire of coping styles and scale of subjective stress were applied. According to the result of exploratory factor analysis, there were two coping styles: negative coping style, and positive coping style. Then, using the path analysis, the direct and indirect effects of personality traits and subjective stress on coping styles were tested. The results showed that: (1) personality traits have the direct effects on coping styles, (2) personality traits have the indirect effects on negative coping style through subjective stress, (3) subjective stress has the direct positive effects on negative coping style, (4) there were potential relationships between three types of subjective stress.
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    INNER-MECHANISMS BETWEEN INTERGENERATIONAL SOCIAL SUPPORT AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING OF THE ELDERLY
    Wang Dahua, Dong Yan, Zhou Liqing, Shen Jiliang
    . 2004, 36 (01): 78-82.  
    Abstract   PDF (167KB) ( 3523 )
    Social support between old parent and adult child has important impact on subjective well-being of the elder1y. The present study applied MUNSH Sca1e, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Parents-adult chi1dren Social Support Scale, Elderly Sense of Gratitude Scale and Self-esteem Scale to 288 participants from cities and countryside aged 53~87 years old. Results showed that social support between old parent and adult child had effects on the subjective well-being of the e1derly through the path of influencing their loneliness, self-esteem and sense of gratitude. The more socia1 supports receiving from adult children, the lower loneliness level, and the higher self-esteem and sense of gratitude level. Moreover, giving social supports improved sense of gratitude level on elderly.
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    ETHNIC IDENTITY OF TIBETAN UNDERGRADUATES
    Wan Minggang,Wang Yapeng
    . 2004, 36 (01): 83-88.  
    Abstract   PDF (144KB) ( 2448 )
    As a member of minority nationalities, after Tibetan undergraduates entered other cultures from their familiar mother culture, on the one hand, they faced dilemma of ethnic identity, on the other hand, they faced torture of acculturation, and at the same time, they also faced disturbance of mental alienation. Combining with qualitative and quantitative study, this study employed 285 Tibetan undergraduates to examine relationships among Tibetan undergraduates, ethnic identity, acculturation and mental alienation. The results showed that:1,Tibetan undergraduates, ethnic identity mainly involved in three aspects: negative ethnic identity, positive ethnic identity and mainstream culture identity. Different aspects of ethnic identity were affected by different factors. But generally speaking, Tibetan undergraduates, ethnic identity might be predicted by the number of Han nationality friends, by the time of learning Chinese, by parents’ nationality identity and the reception of Han nationality.2,There existed abroad positive correlation or negative correlation between ethnic identity and acculturation strategies.3, There existed remarkable positive correlation between negative ethnic identity and normlessness, social loneliness and culture separation;But there was no remarkable correlation between host culture identity and positive ethnic identity and normlessness, social isolation,culture separation and self-separation.
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    CHARACTERISTICS OF VOCATIONAL INTEREST OF CHINESE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTEREST SCALE FOR THEIR COLLEGE ENTRANCE AND CAREER GUIDANCE
    Zhang Houcan,Feng Boling,Yuan Kun
    . 2004, 36 (01): 89-95.  
    Abstract   PDF (160KB) ( 2980 )
    With the increase of competition in employment, career life planning has attracted more and more attention. Based on the need of high school graduates to select satisfactory majors and the basis of previous research on vocational interest, we explored the characteristers of high school students and developed an Interest Scale for College Entrance and Career Guidance. The vocational interest of Chinese high school students are classified into seven types: Artistic, Conventional, Enterprising, Investigative, Natural, Social and Technological. Both of the reliability and validity of the scale are satisfying. After certification and put into use throughout the whole country, it earns positive remarks from users.
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    A TEST ON THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF INVENTORY OF PIAGET’S DEVELOPMENTAL TEST
    Fuxi Fang,Xiaosong Gai,Shaoying Gong,Guoxiong Liu
    . 2004, 36 (01): 96-102.  
    Abstract   PDF (213KB) ( 2314 )
    Reliability and validity of Inventory of Piaget’s Developmental Test is revised. 390 subjects from primary school in Beijing are tested. Results show that this inventory (IPDT)’s reliability, validity, difficulty and discriminant ability are acceptable, and it is appropriate to be used to diagnose primary-school children’s level of cognitive development. The inventory’s applicable scope, existing problem and needs of future research are discussed.
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    MODEL OF SARS STRESS AND IT’S CHARACTER
    Tone Huge
    . 2004, 36 (01): 103-109.  
    Abstract   PDF (316KB) ( 2101 )
    The response of SARS stress of 1016 persons in 17 provinces in China was investigated. Comparing the difference between the high incidence district and others, we found that the two districts had significant difference in the SARS stress structural equation model, while the emotion handicap structural equation model had no significant difference. The theoretical SEM of SARS stress had good fit indexes, which suggested that the panic and the defence were the most important contents, and the cognition played an adjusting role in the response. On the other hand, depression and anxiety, as an index of psychological health, influences the response of stress, but the response of stress influences depression and anxiety much more. The social support is a variable of suffer or mediator, it had a noticeable impact on the SARS stress. The results indicated the characters on the higher stress subjects. Firstly, the persons with higher panic showed higher anxiety and depression and more social support. Secondly, the persons with higher defence had more depression and anxiety than the lower subjects, while the significant difference of social support was not found. Thirdly, the character of lower depression and higher social support appeared on the subjects with higher cognition.
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    THE COMPETENCY MODEL OF SENIOR MANAGERS IN CHINESE FAMILY FIRMS
    Zhong Lifeng,Shi Kan
    . 2004, 36 (01): 110-115.  
    Abstract   PDF (143KB) ( 2601 )
    The study choosed 18 senior managers of family firms in Wenzhou, China, conducted the Behavioral Event Interview, established the competency model of senior mangers in the family firms and validate the competency assessment method. The results showed: Firstly, competency scores using coding standard of average level and using coding standard of competency frequencies showed more reliability, competency’s maximal level of complexity was influenced by interview length. And competency scores using coding standard of average level and using coding atandard of maximal level of complexity, could differentiate superstars and average performers. Secondly, the competencies of senior mangers in family firms include: Authoritarianism Orientation, Initiative, Seizing Opprotunities, Information Seeking, Organization Awareness, Directiveness, Benevolence and Consideration, Self-control, Self-confidence, Self-learning, Impact and Influence. And in all the 11 competencies, there are 9 competencies being similar to that of the generic competency model of senior managers in the overseas firms, 8 competencies being similar to that of the generic competency model of state-owned firms in China. And Authoritarianism Orientation and Benevolence and Consideration are the exclusive competencies which are included in the competency model of senior mangers in Chinese family firms.
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    SIX QUESTIONS IN COMPETITIVE SPORT PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH
    Zhang Liwei
    . 2004, 36 (01): 116-126.  
    Abstract   PDF (230KB) ( 2290 )
    In long time the problems that sport psychology has faced in the area of professional sports include: 1) which psychological indicators can be used to differentiate training-type from competition-type of athletes? 2) How to define, monitor and control the mental fatigue formed in the long time and intensive training and competitions? 3) What are the necessary mental conditions for getting into the state of peak performance? 4) What are the characteristics of brains’ function during athletes’ peak performance? 5) What are the common attributes and different features in the process of development of self among elite athletes and elite people in other fields? 6) Is there sport intelligence? These six problems were analyzed in line of theory and practice. The approaches to solve these problems were also proposed. It is pointed out that the exploration of these problems will help sport psychology to make contribution to the development of its mother science, i.e. psychology.
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