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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    30 May 2004, Volume 36 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    ERP Effects of Dynamic Maintenance of Chinese Characters and Spatial Information in Working Memory
    Wang Yiwen, Lin Chongde, Wei Jinghan, Luo Yuejia, Wei Xing
    2004, 36 (03):  253-259. 
    Abstract ( 2767 )   PDF (261KB) ( 2127 )  
    Event-related brain potentials were measured when 14 normal participants were performing delay-match tasks. During the delay interval after the disappearance of Chinese characters and spatial stimulus,P260 and late positive component(LPC) were generated in centro-frontal areas, N150 and late negative component(LNC) were elicited in parieto-occipital areas. P260 of Chinese character task showed right hemispheric dominance, while from 400ms to 800ms, LPC changed to relative left hemispheric dominance of Chinese character task compared with the spatial task. P260 of the spatial task had no difference between both hemispheres, while from 400ms to 800ms, LPC changed to right hemispheric dominance. The posterior of scalp have not difference. The results provided the evidences of event-related potentials of dissociation and dynamic hemispheric dominance of maintaining Chinese characters and spatial Information in working memory.
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    RIGHT EAR ADVANTAGE FOR MANDARIN TONE PERCEPTION AND ITS MECHANISM: A DICHOTIC LISTENING STUDY
    Liu li, Peng Danling
    2004, 36 (03):  260-264. 
    Abstract ( 1703 )   PDF (161KB) ( 1636 )  
    In dichotic listening, a right ear advantage reflects left hemisphere specialization, and a left ear advantage reflects right hemisphere specialization. A dichotic listening task used to investigate the brain lateralization of Mandarine tone. A response hand factor was manipulated to distinguish direct access and callosal relay explanations of perceptual asymmetry of Mandarine tone. The results indicated a right ear advantage or left hemisphere superiority for the perception of Mandarine tone and supported direct access model in the perception of Mandarine tone.
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    THE INTERPRETATIONS OF CHINESE NOVEL COMBINED CONCEPTS AND THE RELATED FACTORS
    Liu Ye, Fu Xiaolan, Sun Yuhao
    2004, 36 (03):  265-273. 
    Abstract ( 1649 )   PDF (190KB) ( 1200 )  
    The study addresses how people understand Chinese noun-noun combined concepts and the related factors on interpretation strategy. In the experiment 600 Chinese undergraduates interpreted 160 combined concepts made of 32 concepts. The results showed that: (a) Property interpretation and relation interpretation were two primary strategies; (b) subjects preferred property interpretation to relation interpretation when the first sub-concept had a salient feature; (c) the similarity between two sub-concepts had no effect on property interpretation, but had effect on relation interpretation; and (d) combination of living things got more property interpretation, but combination of artifacts got more relation interpretation. Some new findings were inconsistent with either Competition Among Relations in Nominals Theory or Dual-Process Theory, which indicated the new issues in the field of conceptual combination.
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    THE COMPARISON OF THE PRODUCTION OF CHINESE SENTENCES IN FOREIGN STUDENTS WHOSE NATIVE LANGUAGES ARE DIFFIERENT IN TYPOLOGY
    Wang Yongde
    2004, 36 (03):  274-280. 
    Abstract ( 2563 )   PDF (159KB) ( 1983 )  
    This study explored whether foreign students’ native languages affect their Chinese grammar acquisition. The subjects were native English, Japanese, and Korean speakers whose Chinese was at the elementary level . Six constructions of Chinese sentence, including subject-verb-object(zhu dong bin)construction, two topic-comment constructions, two Ba constructions, and Bei construction ,were chosen as the test materials. In the study, the subjects were requested to choose suitable words from the list in the questionnaire, to compare grammatical structure of each example sentence given, then made a corresponding sentence whose grammatical structure was similar to that of the example sentence. Six sentences were made one by one. The rules were defined to score each of the sentences which the subjects made after the test. The results showed that their performances were related to their native languages. There was significant difference between the subjects whose native language was English and those whose native languages were Japanese and Korean in the production of four Chinese sentence constructions: subject-verb-object construction, two topic-comment constructions and one of Ba constructions. The Chinese sentence constructions similar to their native language were mastered more easily than those different to their native language. The findings supported the notion that second language acquisition is affected by learners’ native language and suggested that the foreign students be taught according to the types of their native languages while teaching Chinese as second language at the elementary level.
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    INFLUENCE OF FEATURES RELATION ACROSS DIMENSIONS ON CATEGORY LEARNING
    Mo Lei, Guo Lu
    2004, 36 (03):  281-289. 
    Abstract ( 2300 )   PDF (212KB) ( 1303 )  
    This study investigated the effects on category learning when the category members had the same features cross two dimensions or the match features cross two dimensions. The subjects who consisted of the first grade under-graduates in South China Normal University. were tested after learning the category materials with different feature structures. The unit amount and the error percentage during the learning phase and the reaction time and the error percentage during the testing phase were counted. Three experiments were included. In Experiment 1,the learning results were compared under three circumstances, the circumstance that the category members had the same features across dimensions, the circumstance that the category members had the matched features across two dimensions, and the circumstance that the category members had the unmatched features across two dimensions. In Experiment 2,the influence on the category learning were probed into when the category members had the same features across two separate dimensions. In Experiment 3,the influence on category learning were examined further when the members from the different categories had the same features across two dimensions. The results of the this research showed that: (1) When the category members had the same features across two dimensions, the category learning was advanced because the subjects tended to regard the two dimensions as one dimension.(2) The category learning was not advanced when the category members had the matched features across two dimensions or the same features across two separate dimensions.(3)There was negative effect in category learning when the members from the different categories had the same features across two dimensions. It was showed in this research that the features similarity would influence the determination of dimensions.
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    ON-LINE UPDATING OF SPATIAL SITUATION MODELS WITHOUT CLUE
    Chi Yukai,Mo Lei,Guan Yanhua
    2004, 36 (03):  290-297. 
    Abstract ( 2346 )   PDF (185KB) ( 1328 )  
    By using an on-line window display technique, the present study investigated the different character of updating spatial information without clue in different research techniques. The results of 3 Experiments showed that on-line updating spatial information of situation models could be found in some conditions. Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 demonstrated that under the conditions of presenting the reading materials by key-press, the setting information participants read before could be updated on line, especially for explicit spatial information, such as “square”. In Experiment 3, the results of a recognition task showed that the implicit spatial information (such as “sculpture”) also could be updated on line without clue. Furthermore, the level of updating was changed along with probe-word location in text.
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    CAUSAL JUDGMENTS IN THE CONCENTRATIVE PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION WITH DIFFERENT EXTERNAL REPRESENTATIONS
    Wang Moyun, Fu Xiaolan
    2004, 36 (03):  298-306. 
    Abstract ( 1869 )   PDF (220KB) ( 1388 )  
    An experiment was conducted to investigate human causal judgments in the concentrative presentation of information with the three different external representations and the paradigm of direct estimates of causal power, and to test the Power PC theory, Probabilistic Contrast Model, and pCI rule. The participants were 287 college students. It was found that judgments of causal power of single causal relationships had the four characteristics: (a) More judgments were in accord with the Power PC theory in preventive causes, but conversely most judgments were in accord with probabilistic contrast model in generative causes; (b) the representations of literal presentation, tables and graphs had no impact on the judgments of causal power in generative causes, but had the impact on that in preventive causes where more participants’ judgments were in accord with the Power PC theory in the representation of graphs, compared with the representations of literal presentation and tables; (c) no participant used pCI rule; and (d) there were obvious individual differences in causal judgments.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF ATTENTION ON THE EFFECTS OF NUMBER MAGNITUDE IN NUMBER COMPARISON TASK
    Liu Chao, Fu Xiaolan
    2004, 36 (03):  307-314. 
    Abstract ( 2638 )   PDF (363KB) ( 1806 )  
    A number comparison task was performed to examine the role of attention in number processing. Two main number comparison effects, number distance effect and number notation effect, were investigated in two attention conditions: attended (fixation) or unattended (3ºleft or right beside the fixation).Different number magnitude (large: 6-9 & small: 1-4) and number notations (Chinese & Arabic) were used. The task is to compare the numbers with 5. The number distance effect and number notation effect were investigated using ANOVA analysis. Both the error rates and RT data showed that, for number distance effect, both large numbers and small numbers had very clear distance effect in attended condition; however, only small numbers had distinct distance effect in unattended condition. For number notation effect, both small numbers and large numbers had no notation effect in attended condition; however, only small numbers showed a significant notation effect (the performance of Chinese numbers were significant better than Arabic numbers) in unattended condition.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF OUTPUT MODE AND OUTPUT TIME FOR DIGIT SPAN
    Xuan Bin,Zhang Daren
    2004, 36 (03):  315-321. 
    Abstract ( 991 )   PDF (264KB) ( 1268 )  
    The purpose of this experiment was to discuss that the influence of output time for performance of short-term memory (STM) in oral and writing output modes. The task was a digit span test. When presented singular sequences, subjects were required to report two kinds of sequences in oral and writing modes, one was the original singular sequences, the other was the sequences with additional characters of different length prior to the each digit. Given the stimuli of same length, we found the output time was longer when adding some characters in both oral and writing output modes. The performance was declining with the increase of the output time in oral report, but not in writing. This result was inferred that the total output time was not a good predictor of span in STM. On the other hand, it also suggested that the influential factor was may not be delay time, but articulatory time.
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    THE EXISTENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPLICIT TIME: UNDER DYNAMIC AND STATIC CONDITIONS
    Guo Xiuyan,Xiao Huibin,Zhou Chu
    2004, 36 (03):  322-326. 
    Abstract ( 2401 )   PDF (151KB) ( 1425 )  
    Using 2×2×2 mixed design, the current research discussed the existence possibility and the characteristics of implicit time under dynamic and static conditions. The materials were concrete and abstract figures. The results showed: (1) under dynamic condition, the subjects’ judgment on the location excursion of abstract figure was accurater than other conditions. (2) implicit time had the characteristics of orientation. (3) either the material was concrete or abstract figures, the subjects’ judgments on the location excursion of the test figure and the memorial figure had no difference. The results suggest the existence of implicit time and the characteristics of orientation and inpenetrability of it. Furthermore, the results testify that the motorial paradigm can be seen as an effective method for the study of implicit time.
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    Development of Attribution of second-order False-beliefs by 3- to 6-year-old Children
    Zhang Wenxin, Zhao Jingxin, Wang Yiwen, Zhang Yueping
    2004, 36 (03):  327-334. 
    Abstract ( 2757 )   PDF (184KB) ( 2261 )  
    The ability to attribute 2nd-order false-beliefs and its developmental stage were investigated via the “new stories” paradigm in a sample of 133 children from two kindergartens. The results indicated that children around 4 years old could attribute second-order ignorance, but there was a developmental gap of 1- to-2 years between the attribution of second-order ignorance and second-order false-belief. The critical period for the development of children’s attribution of the second-order false-belief was around age six. A majority of 6 year-old children were able to justify their correct false-belief response based on genuine second-order reasoning, while their wrong answers to false-belief questions were mostly based on the first-order reasoning. The development of attribution to the second-order false-belief wasn’t an all-or-none process, but one of gradual process.
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    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TIME PERSPECTIVE, INTERPERSONAL INVOLVEMENT AND INTERNET USE OF ADOLESCENTS
    Lei Li, Li Hongli
    2004, 36 (03):  335-339. 
    Abstract ( 1074 )   PDF (160KB) ( 2331 )  
    Through questionnaires, 589 adolescents were surveyed about their time perspective, interpersonal involvement and Internet use. The finding indicated that there was no influence of demographic factors on the pathological Internet use (PIU) of adolescents. The orientation of time perspective, however, could predict PIU, with the interpersonal involvement, of parents and peer, playing different mediating effect respectively.
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    GENDER EXCLUSION IN CHILDREN PEER GROUP ACTIVITY
    Wang Pei, Gao Ying
    2004, 36 (03):  340-346. 
    Abstract ( 3092 )   PDF (167KB) ( 2507 )  
    The experiment 1 investigated gender stereotype in children peer group activity by picture materials. The experiment 2 explored the reason that the behavior of gender exclusion emerged in different exclusion context. Subject were the kindergartener, and pupils in grade two and grade five. The results suggested: (1) In peer group activity, the children of three grades had obvious gender stereotype. (2) The gender exclusion behavior wasn’t only revoked by gender stereotype. (3) Children might include opposite sex peer because of moral and prosocial behavior, while exclude opposite sex peer because of group identity, group function and gender stereotype.
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    RELIABILITIES AND VALIDITIES OF THE CHINESE PERSONALITY SCALE
    Wang Dengfeng, Cui Hong
    2004, 36 (03):  347-358. 
    Abstract ( 5393 )   PDF (234KB) ( 4664 )  
    The original Chinese Personality Scale, which was called “Qingnian Zhongguo Personality Scale” (QZPS), composed of 215 items with seven dimensions and 18 factors was reconfirmed based on more than 5000 subjects’ ratings. The reconfirmed QZPS was composed by 180 items and with same structure of the original one, reliabilities defined by internal consistencies and test-retest correlations, and validities defined by factorial structure, convergent and discriminant validities, and criterion-related validity ( discriminant from normal and schizophrenics, criminals, and drug-abusers) were also reported with good psychological measurement properties. It was concluded that QZPS a good tool in research and application in the field of Chinese personality.
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    THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF BRAND IMAGE SYSTEM
    Jiao Xuan, Lv Jianhong, Chen Yiwen
    2004, 36 (03):  359-364. 
    Abstract ( 1487 )   PDF (152KB) ( 1847 )  
    Brand image is the attributes set and the related associations of a brand in consumers’ mind. The study explored the factors of brand image system of three different product categories and their weight. The factors of brand image were explored through questionnaire. Toothpaste, sports sneaker, and personal stereo were chosen as product sample, and four hundred and twenty undergraduates from Tangshan city and Beijing as subjects (each person evaluated two kinds of products). Hereinto the first two kinds of products which were requisites of undergraduates, sports sneaker belongs to high conspicuous products and toothpaste was low conspicuous product. On the other hand, personal stereo was the sample of development and entertainment products. Several factors of three products’ brand image were taken out with exploratory factor analysis. In order to explore the weight of the brand image factors, and as the factor contribution ratio method is not veracious, holistic quartation method was used here. Twenty six undergraduates evaluated the weight of the image factors of three kinds of brand with holistic quartation method. Product function, advertising and propaganda, market orientation, product grade, corporation image are the factors of toothpaste brand image. Product function, advertising and propaganda, symbolic meaning, market orientation, brand appetency, consuming experience are the factors of sports sneaker brand image. Corporation image and product function, advertising and propaganda, consuming experience, symbolic meaning, price and function ratio are the factors of personal stereo brand image. So the hypothesis was proved that brand image is an ordinal and organic system, “ordinal” means the weight of factors are different, “organic” means that brand image can be deposed into several factors and the factors belonged to function components and meaning components. function components are the factors about physical characteristics and function, which are called “hard factors”; meaning factors are those that can show the personality、value and lifestyle of consumers, which are called “soft factors”. The research also gave evidence of the hypothesis below: the factor structures of brand image of different product category have commonness and individuality; the function components of low conspicuous products are more important than the counterpart of high conspicuous products.
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    THE FACTORS OF CELEBRITY ENDORSER’S CREDIBILITY
    Wang Huaiming, Ma Mouchao
    2004, 36 (03):  365-369. 
    Abstract ( 2508 )   PDF (203KB) ( 1695 )  
    A questionnaire survey has been made on 601 objects, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis shows that celebrity endorsers’ credibility is composed of four factors, that is, expertise, attractiveness, moral character and the congruity between the celebrity and the product endorsed.
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    THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCATION WARINESS ON THE PROCESS AND OUTCOMES OF DYADIC NEGOTIATION
    Zhang Zhixue, Han Yulan
    2004, 36 (03):  370-377. 
    Abstract ( 2370 )   PDF (177KB) ( 1224 )  
    This study examined the influence of reciprocation wariness, a general fear of exploitation in interpersonal relationships, on negotiators’ motivational orientation, negotiation behavior and outcomes. We predicted that negotiators with low reciprocation wariness would be more likely to be cooperatively oriented, be more likely to share more information with their opponents than negotiators with high reciprocation wariness. It was also predicted that reciprocation wariness would be related to joint gains of the dyad as well as the negotiators’ perceptions of the other party after the negotiation. 184 on-the-job MBA students were divided into 92 dyadic groups and participated in a simulated business negotiation. The participants’ reciprocation wariness was successfully manipulated before they started the negotiation. The results supported the above hypotheses. The research findings have implications for business negotiators.
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