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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 7 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    THE INFLUENCE OF CONVERGENCE ON SIZE-DISTANCE JUDGMENTS
    FANG YUN-CHIU, CHING CHI-CHENG
    . 1963, 7 (04): 3-11.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 80 )
    The influence of various angles of convergence on size-distance judgments were investigated by means of interposing polaroids between the eyes of the subject and the stimuli. Convergence changes were controlled by adjusting the distance between two monocularly presented stimuli viewed with crossed vision and uncrossed vision. The results showed that size-distance judgments are conditioned by convergence, the perceptual size and perceptual distance decreases with an increased angle of convergence, and vice versa. Size judgments fall between the law of size constancy and the calculated values predicted by Emmert's law at various converged distances, while distance judgments follow approximately the values of calculated converged distances. The experiments also showed that convergence still serves as a cue for distance at as far as 30 metres, and that distance judgments are so near to the calculated values, from which the conclusion can be made that convergence is primarily a cue for distance perception.From the fact that Perceptual size decreases with increased angles of convergence, it is probable that size constancy, under our experimental conditions, is the result of an associative process of retinal image and convergence, i.e., when an object approaches the observer, the retinal image increases, while at the same time convergence angle also increases, the compensation of which causes a constancy of size.
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    THE ROLE OF CONVERGENCE IN SIZE CONSTANCY
    CHING CHI-CHENG, FANG YUN-CHIU
    . 1963, 7 (04): 12-22.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 171 )
    Convergence of the eyes was controlled by means of polaroids as in a previous experiment. 22 subjects made size judgments of 5 stimuli presented at various distances in a 5 m long light-tight box. The results indicated:1. With stimulus distance held constant and varying only convergence, perceptual size increases with increasing converged distance and decreases with decreasing converged distance. But the perceptual size caused by convergence changes does not fully correspond to the predicted size which subtends a constant visual angle at various converged distances.2. With convergence held constant and varying only stimulus distance, changes in perceptual size mainly follows the law of retinal image, thus the break down of size constancy can be observed. This has been verified both with stimuli of the same physical size and stimuli subtending the same visual angle at various distances.3. Monocular observation yielded results that lie between normal binocular observation and observation with convergence held constant.4. Size judgments of one-eyed persons follows the law of retinal image, i.e., they show no size constancy. This result is consistent with the result of normal subjects with convergence held constant.5. It is suggested, when an object approaches the observer, under normal observation, inflation of the retinal image is being counter-balanced by a size reduction process due to Convergence. Probably, kinesthetic impulses from the eye muscles fed back into the brain furnish a cue for distance which reflexively modulated size perception and make size constancy possible.
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    THE RECOGNITION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS BY PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN UNDER TACHISTOSCOPIC CONDITIONS Ⅱ. THE EFFECT OF THE STRUCTURE OF CHARACTERS
    TSAO CHUEN-YUNG SHEN YEH
    . 1963, 7 (04): 23-31.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the structure of characters on recognition. Three experiments were conducted. The results indicated: 1) Degree of similarity between the structure of characters influenced the recognition. 2) Characters with the same contour and different in contents is more difficult to identify than the characters with the same content but different in contour. 3) Familiar radicals play an important role in the reproduction of unfamiliar radicals. Children trends to replace the new radical with the familiar ones.
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    THE RECOGNITION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS BY PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN UNDER TACHISTOSCOPIC CONDITIONS Ⅲ. THE CENTRAL EFFECTS ON RECOGNITION
    TSAO CHUEN-YUNG, SHEN YEH
    . 1963, 7 (04): 32-38.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 92 )
    Using familiar and unfamiliar phrases as materials, this study investigated the central effects on recognition. Results indicated that no VDT difference was found between familiar phrases of 2—6 words, but the VDT difference is significant when the word order of these same phrases were changed. For the unfamiliar phrases no such difference was founded under the same condition. On the other hand, the VDT for the familiar phrases with word order changed is significantly higher than the unfamiliar phrases. It is suggested that central effects may affect recognition in two ways, facilitating and interfering. Problems of the storage systems of language in human brain were discussed.
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    AN INVESTIGATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IN CHILDREN OF 4—9 YEARS Ⅰ. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON CLASSIFICATION AND GENERIC NAMING
    LIU CHING-HO, WANG HSIEN-TIEN, FAN TSUN-JEN, CHANG MEI-LING
    . 1963, 7 (04): 39-47.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 72 )
    A study was made among 72 children from 4—9 years of age on the classification of various objects (depicted on cards), falling into several categories.The objects could be divided according to different categories of varying levels e.g. (a) at the lowest level, birds, fish, etc. could be grouped separately, and (b) at the second level, they were classified as "animal", a higher level of abstract conception.Each child was asked: (1) to sort according to his own ideas of classification; (2) to pick up the cards according to specified classifications; and (3) to give the generic name to previously sorted cards.The results showed that:1. The percentage of correct responses rose with increasing age for both levels.2. In general, the children were more successful in the second task than in the first; and they were better in the first task than in the third.3. Variations in successful performance were shown in different age groups. For the first level, in all the tasks, the greatest variation was shown in the age groups 4—5 and 5—6, while for the second level, the most marked difference was shown in the 7—8 age group in the second task.4. Differences were also found in the classification for the same level as regards different objects. The classification of such objects as tables and chairs was superior to that of objects such as vegetables and fruit.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAUSALITY THINKING IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN (Ⅱ)
    HO CHI-KAI, CHEN CHI-HWEI
    . 1963, 7 (04): 48-55.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 109 )
    The experimental study showed: 1. Causality thinking in pre-school children is shown in the course of experiment; 2. Children's active attitude (or mental set) and eagerness to find out the solution of the problem is an essential condition for the development of causality thinking; 3. There are several stages in the transformation of actions into thoughts, and their characteristics vary with different age levels; 4. Reversibility in thinking is revealed in the discovery of the conservation of quantity of liquid in children of 6—7 years group but not in children of 3—4 years group.
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    О БЛИЯЮЩИХ ЗЛЕМЕНТАХ В УЗНАВАНИИ ДЕТЬМИ АРИФМЕТИЧЕСКИХ ЗАДАЧ
    Чжан Цзэн-цзе, Ван Пань-ся
    . 1963, 7 (04): 56-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 74 )
    ~~
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    STUDIES ON THE METHODS OF MEMORIZATION USED BY JUNIOR MIDDLE SCHOOL PUPILS Ⅰ. METHODS FOR MEMORIZING 4-WORD SENTENCES
    CHAO LI-JU, TSAO JIH-CHANG
    . 1963, 7 (04): 64-72.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 104 )
    A list of 20 four-word sentences was memorized by 40 first grade junior middle school pupils. The results showed:1. The methods of memorization used by the pupils are: grouping the materials by meaning, grouping into quantitatively equal portions, using the first word of a sentence as hint, grouping by rhyming the materials. Some subjects learned the sentences one by one by rote learning.2. The efficiency of different methods of memorization is conditioned by the nature of the materials and the learning task. If all parts of the material are learned to approximately the same degree, the materials are better retained.3. The method of memorization adopted by the pupils is dependent upon their understanding of the materials. Those understood the materials equally well may, however, use different methods for memorization.4. The different methods of memorization reveal in a certain degree the different processes of memorizing the materials.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS UPON THE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE OF THE HUMAN BODY SURFACE
    WEI POU-LING, WU KUO-POU
    . 1963, 7 (04): 82-87.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 84 )
    The change of potential difference of the human body caused by psychological factors and those occurred under different psychological states, e.g., exitment, calm and sleep, were observed with the aid of a potentiometer. The results obtained are as follows:1. The potential difference of the human body varies with different regions, being relatively higher between the parts near the trunk and the foot than that between the parts near the ends of the extremities and the foot; the maximum value of the potential difference is about 60mV, its maximum change being 40mV.2. The potential difference decreases when the subject changes from a working state to a resting state, and further decreases as sleep takes place, while it increases again as soon as the subject awakes.3. The potential difference also becomes higher when emotional tension appears as the result of sudden irritation, and resumes its original level when the subject calms down. Within a definite limit, the greater the tension is, the more markedly the potential difference will increase.4. It is the psychological tension that determines the potential difference of the body surface, though the physical status may make some difference. The authors are of the opinion that the potential difference from the body surface is a reliable indicator of the extent of emotional tension of human beings.
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    PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ZHEJIANG CHILDREN
    WANG PAI-YANG
    . 1963, 7 (04): 88-98.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    5913 Zhejiang children, aged from 5 to 18, have been measured in 1951. The measurements applied consist of stature, body weight, span, sitting height, trunk height and 3 chest circumferences taken in statical, inspiratory and expiratory states. The statistical constants have been tabulated and analyzed as following:1. There is a period of rapid growth during the age of 11—16 in the male and 10—15 in the female. The beginning and declining of this period of the female are earlier than that of the male (one year earlier in the beginning, and 1—3 years earlier in the declining).2. The growth of stature is faster than that of chest circumference before the puberty, and slower during puberty, in both sexes; the growth rate of weight is considerably greater than that of the stature and the chest circumference, throughout all ages in both sexes.3. The changes in the coefficient of variability are closely associated with that of the growth rate. This indicates that the individual variation is more marked during the period of rapid growth.4. The growth of stature is slower than that of the span. The measurement of the stature of the male is greater than the span before the age of 15, and smaller after the age of 16; the measurement of the stature of the female is greater than the span until the age of 18.5. The ratio of the trunk height to the stature seems constant throughout all ages between 5—18, which is about 0.34—0.35 in both sexes; while that of the head-and-neck decreases gradually with age, and that of the leg increases gradually with age. These later tendencies appeares to be more pronounced in the male than the female.6. The development of the difference between inspiratory and expiratory chest circumference shows a liner tendency in both sexes, before the age of 13. The sex difference appeared at the age of 14; after that, the male figure is markedly larger than that of the female.
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