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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 8 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    FACTORS EFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF DISTANCE JUDGMENT
    PENG JUI-HSEUNG, LIN CHUNG-HSIEN
    . 1964, 8 (01): 11-21.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 69 )
    5 discs were presented in a 650×45×45cm light-tight box. Under reduced illumination, S was requested to employ the distance (80 cm) between two near-by discs as the standard, and adjust three other discs into equi-distance. 8 conditions were investigated: 1, Discs with size equated (diameter: 2 cm) and their brightness matched beforehand by E; 2, Size equated, with brightness matched, viewed with monocular observation; 3, Size varied according to Emmert's law, with brightness matched; 4, Size decreased consecutively by 20%, with brightness matched; 5, Size equated, brightness arranged from dim to bright; 6, Size equated, brightness arranged from bright to dim; 7 and 8, Size and brightness as in condition 1, two columns of light spots were added along the inner walls of the box. In condition 7, the light spots were arranged in an expanding pattern that looked like a gradient of artificial texture; whereas in condition 8, the light pattern were arranged in the reverse.The results indicated that, under conditions 1, 2, 3 and 8, most Ss made overestimated distance judgments, wherein condition 3 was the most striking. Conversely, under conditions 4 and 6, most Ss made underestimations. The judgments made under conditions 5 and 7 were quite accurate, approaching the physical distance. The lawabiding effect produced by size as a variable on distance judgments under reduced illumination conformed with judgments made under normal conditions. It seems that size is an independent variable in distance judgment notwithstanding that the absolute magnitude of stimuli and the absolute magnitude of standard distance being changed. The causes of errors of judgments are discussed in relation to the mechanism of association.
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    MOTIVATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORAL BEHAVIOR IN CHILDREN
    LI PO-SHU, CHOU KWAN-SHENG
    . 1964, 8 (01): 27-34.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 139 )
    Questionaires were distributed to 297 pupils of 9—16 years, to investigate their moral motivation under hypothetical and real situations. The results indicates: 1) Primary school children of 3rd and 4th grades are aware of the social implications of their behavior, but their behavior is rarely motivated self-consciously. Middle school pupils can comprehend in a more systematic and generalized way of the moral significance of their behavior, the self-conscious character of their moral motivation is of a higher level. 2) Motivational struggle between moral and immoral behavior is a reflection of children's moral consciousness in actual life situations. 3) Moral motivations of primary school children are mainly determined by contradictions of environmental and inner factors, whereas motivations of middle school pupils are mainly determined by contradictions of environmental factors reflected in their consciousness.
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    MEMORY OF DISCONNECTED WORDS, DIGITS AND PICTURES IN SCHOOL CHILDREN
    TING TSU-YIN, PAN CHIEH, Luo MIN, SUN YU-MING
    . 1964, 8 (01): 35-42.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 81 )
    Elementary school children served as subjects memorizing lists of words, digits and series of pictures. The results indicate: 1. The efficiency of memory is different, as materials memorized—words, digits and pictures are different. Concrete and lively pictorial materials are easily learned and better remembered than abstract materials.2. Memory of "related" materials are better than "unrelated" materials. This is especially the case with concrete lively pictorial materials and in delayed reproductions.3. Children of the first grade realized that "related" materials are easier to commit to memory. They tried also to construct meaningful connections to facilitate memory.4. The efficiency of memory increases with grade levels. The increase is more striking with "related" materials and in immediate reproductions.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SOME PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN'S INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITIES
    CHANG SHU-TSU, SHEN DE-LI
    . 1964, 8 (01): 51-58.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 75 )
    The stability and flexibility of "task consciousness" of 10 second grade children (selected from the same class, five distinctly more intelligent and five distinctly less intelligent) were investigated with experiment, group test and interview. The results show:1. In more intelligent Children, the stability and flexibility of "task consciousness" are mostly of a higher degree, and in children with lower intellectual level, the stability and flexibility of "task consciousness" are mostly of a lower degree. This shows that the stability and flexibility of "task consciousness" are important factors to intellectual activities.2. After comparing individual subjects, it was found that in some individual cases, the level of intellectual activities and the degree of stability and flexibility of "task consciousness" are not always in accordance. This shows that although stability and flexibility of "task consciousness" are considered as important factors to intellectual activities, but the former and the latter are different in nature.3. As to the relation of the two traits, stability and flexibility, they are neither exclusive of one another nor perfectly related to each other. This shows that they are two mutually characteristics, but not two extremities of a single characteristic.
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    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE STRUCTURE OF COMPLEX VERBAL ARITHMETICAL PROBLEMS
    MAO YU-YIEN, KUNG WEI-YAO, CHEN PEI-LIN
    . 1964, 8 (01): 59-73.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    A general survey test, containing 6 groups with a total of 36 arithmetical problems, were administered to three thousands children of grades Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ with the purpose of studying the structure of verbal arithmetical problems and its bearing on the nature and causes of the difficulty encountered by the children. The results of this test were then corroborated with individual tests employed under the supervision of the experimenter.By analysing the results and the kinds of mistakes made by the children, in corroboration with data obtained from interviews, conclusions were drawn concerning: (1)the components of the verbal problems; (2) psychological factors affecting the nature and causes of difficulty in solving the problems; and (3) differences among the different grade levels.
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    ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТАЛЬНОЕ ИЭУЧЕНИЕ ОТРИЦАТЕЛЬНОГО ВЛИЯНИЯ ПЕРЕПЛЕТА ГЕОМЕТРИЧЕСКИХ ФИГУР НА ПРОЦЕССЫ ВОСПРИЯТИЯ И МЫШЛЕНИЯ
    Лу Чжун-хэн, Ин Юй-е, Чжан Мэй-линь, Чжу Синь-мин, Хун Те-лунь, Нянь Хуй-фэнь
    . 1964, 8 (01): 74-85.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 90 )
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    RATE OF FORGETTING IN THE RECITATION OF POEMS AND ESSAYS
    CHEN KWANG-SUN
    . 1964, 8 (01): 86-95.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 98 )
    An experimental study on memory was carried out with poems and essays, selected from readings of junior middle school as materials. The results showed: 1) In the beginning, forgetting proceeds faster for essays than for poems, but at a later period the trend shifted to the reverse, i. e., forgetting for poems proceeds quicker than essays; 2) Differences in the components of materials forgotten, which are related to the difference in rate of forgetting, between poems and essays are also observed. Omissions and alterations occur more frequently in essays than in poems, whereas displacements and reversals occur more frequently in poems than in essays.
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    PSYCHOGALVANIC REFLEX AND THE SUBJECTIVE STATES OF NEURASTHENICS
    CHEN CHONG-KENG
    . 1964, 8 (01): 105-110.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 240 )
    P. G. R. test was given to 42 neurasthenics and 10 normal subjects. The resting curve of the first 15 minutes was recorded; after this period a stimulus for disturbance, and next an alarm of ending experiment were applied in order to study the change scores. It was found that (1) neurasthenics with a state of restlessness, emotionally anxiousness and over-sensitiveness showed greater reactivity than normals; (2) neurasthenics with tiredness showed smaller resting scores and greater responsiveness to stimuli than normal subjects; (3) low correlation was found between the degree of self-sensitiveness and P. G. R.
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