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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 38 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    The Role of Semantic Radicals of Chinese Characters in Grammatical Categorization of Chinese Visual Words
    . 2006, 38 (02): 159-169.  
    Abstract   PDF (990KB) ( 1961 )
    In order to explore the role of semantic radicals of Chinese characters in grammatical categorization of Chinese visual words, three experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 indicated that semantic radicals of Chinese characters provided important information of grammatical classes of words and played important role in categorization of Chinese nouns and verbs. When agreeing with the grammatical classes of the words, semantic radicals could promote the cognition of words’grammatical meaning. Otherwise, they would interfere the cognition. Experiment 2 showed that high frequency words were classified faster and with lower error rates than low frequency words. There were notable interaction between semantic radicals and word frequency, the effects of semantic radicals on categorization of low frequency words were more striking. Experiment 3 showed that the concreter the words were, the faster the words were classified, the lower error rates were produced. But there was no interaction between the role of the semantic radicals and word concreteness. The semantic radicals agreeing with the grammatical classes of words would progress both high concrete words and low concrete words. The whole study showed that semantic radicals of Chinese characters are processing units of both Chinese nouns and verbs. Semantic radicals are not only“structural chunks”and“semantic chunks”, but also“grammatical chunks”. This phenomenon are attributed to the structure characteristics of Chinese nouns and verbs. By semantic radicals, most of Chinese nouns mark the materials that things were made of or made from, and most of Chinese verbs mark the organs or tools of actions. The discovery of the grammatical meaning of semantic radicals will illuminate the teaching of Chinese. It also will enrich the theories of Chinese and the cognition of Chinese characters and words
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    Effects of Activation and Inhibition of Stimulus Categories on Preview Search
    Lei Xuejun-,Jin-Zhicheng
    . 2006, 38 (02): 170-180.  
    Abstract   PDF (1083KB) ( 1580 )
    he effects of category mixing and prior target category knowledge on preview search were investigated in the present study. The categorical stimuli were Chinese and Arabian numbers in magnitudes from two to nine. Subjects’ task was to detect a target number (three or seven in two kinds of numbers). The experimental method was a preview search paradigm. In some conditions, subjects were told the target’s category; in others, they were not. The results showed that: a) Foreknowledge of the target’s category produced large improvement in search (Experiment 1); b) The magnitude of this anticipatory effect was reduced if the target shared its category with a single categorical set of previewed numbers (Experiment 2); c) The magnitude of this effect was greatly increased when the target didn’t share its category with a single categorical set of previewed numbers (Experiment 3). The implications of these results for current theories on visual selection were discussed
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    Conflict Control at Different Periods of Processing in Children with Two Subtypes of ADHD
    . 2006, 38 (02): 181-188.  
    Abstract   PDF (698KB) ( 2234 )
    A stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response compatibility task was used to investigate to what extent ADHD children had deficits in conflict control at periods of perceptual processing and response activation, and whether they resolved conflicts in similar time courses as normal children. Subjects were two subtypes of ADHD children (25 predominantly inattentive and 30 combined) and normal controls who were matched in age, IQ and the year of education. Results showed that ADHD children had great difficulties (even more sever showed the combined comparing with predominantly inattentive) in resolving conflict at period of response while they showed a normal pattern as controls in controlling conflict at period of perception. Moreover, for both ADHD and normal children, resolution of conflicts at period of perceptual and response had different time courses, with more time needed for the resolution of response conflict
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    Change of Children’s Representation Level in the Context of Practice
    . 2006, 38 (02): 189-196.  
    Abstract   PDF (784KB) ( 1602 )
    Karmiloff-Smith’s theory of Representation Redescription suggested that representation redescription was an important way to gain knowledge. In order to explore whether practice could offer the chance of representation redescription so that the levels of representation experiences changed accordingly. Twenty-nine children from the grade 1 of a primary school were asked to solve the task of digital combination. The result showed: (1) in the context of practice, for about half of children the representation developed rapidly from implicit level to explicit level, while for the others the presentation didn’t change any more; (2) the paths of the change of representation were not completely consistent with Karmiloff-Smith’s hypothesis that the paths were from procedural to meta-procedural phase and then to conceptual phase, and there were some other possible paths of development; (3) the representation obtained in the context of practice was limitedly flexible, that was to say, it could transfer to the near problems, but it was difficult to transfer to the far problems
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    Effects of Intonation on 6~10-Year-Old Children’s Cognition of Different Types of Irony
    . 2006, 38 (02): 197-206.  
    Abstract   PDF (981KB) ( 1779 )
    Using attitude, meaning detection, and language phenomenon detections as survey indexes, the study inspected the effects of intonation on the cognition of different types of irony among 6~to10-year-old children in china. The results showed:(1)the children displayed developmental unbalance in different aspects of irony cognition. 6-year-old children have possessed tentative irony cognitive ability, they began to understand the attitude and the discourse meaning of the speaker, but they could not explain irony phenomenon correctly. Until 10-year-old, the ability of children’s interpretation of irony phenomenon were still developing;(2)Intonation (neutral or stressed) affected the attitude detection and meaning detection of children, but had no effects on language phenomenon detection of children;(3)the children’s cognitive levels of different types of irony were different. There were not noticeable differences between 6-year-old children’s interpretations of two types of irony, but there were striking differences between 8-year-old and 10-year-old children’s interpretations of two types of irony. Compared with ironic compliments, 8-year-old and 10-year-old children could interpret ironic criticisms better.
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    Relations between Different Test Questions of Unexpected Transfer Task, Understanding of Intention and Executive Function


    . 2006, 38 (02): 207-215.  
    Abstract   PDF (863KB) ( 2174 )
    This study aimed to discuss the possible difference between “knowing/not knowing question” and “predict question “of unexpected transfer task and the relations between these two questions and executive function tasks. Also we test the relation between the ability to understand intentional action and executive function tasks. The unexpected transfer task, the knee-jerk reflex task and two executive function tasks (Dimensional Change Card Sorting Test and hand game) were given to 59 children aged 3, 4 and 5 years old. The results showed that children’s performance on “knowing/not knowing question” was significantly better than on “predict question “.These two questions may reflect children’s different developmental level of TOM. The relationship between DCCS task, the knee-jerk reflex task and the “knowing/not knowing question” are so strong even after age and verbal intelligence are partialled out. We supposed that they need a common ability that is to form different representations for different approximate objects. We call this differentiated representations about two approximate objects as dual differentiated representations
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    Children’s Anticipatory Image on Geometric Figure


    . 2006, 38 (02): 223-231.  
    Abstract   PDF (807KB) ( 1623 )
    In this paper, the authors divided children’s anticipatory image on geometric figure into two levels: recognitive anticipatory image and productive anticipatory image. There were three kinds of plan geometric figure and three kinds of solid geometric figure about anticipatory image works adopted in this paper. The former involved moving one straight line parallel, symmetry figures and overlapping figures, and the latter involved developing the surfaces of solid geometric figure, rotating a plane figure 360 degrees in space and cutting solid geometric figures. 300 children from 3 to 12 years old were tested. The results showed: (1) The emergence of children’s recognitive anticipatory images on geometric figure emerged from 4 to 5 years old three years earlier than the productive anticipatory images emerged from 7 to 8 years old;(2) Children’s anticipatory images on plan geometric figure tasks emerged earlier than solid geometric figure tasks ;(3) Children’s anticipatory images on simple tasks emerged earlier than complex tasks
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    Relations Between the Conception of Respect and Peer Relationships in Childhood
    . 2006, 38 (02): 232-239.  
    Abstract   PDF (704KB) ( 2572 )
    The study investigated the relation between children’s conception of respect and peer relationships. 502 children from Grade 3 through 6 completed peer nominations, sociometric nominations, friendship quality questionnaire and opened questionnaire on the conception of respect. Results showed children of mutual respect had more friends and better friendship quality than children of unilateral respect. Popular children had no more mutual respect conception than other children. Rejected children had more unilateral respect conception than other children, which mainly was self-directed conception of respect. The different relations between respect conception and two aspects of peer relationships, which were friend relationships and social status, were discussed
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    Development of Child Cardiac Vagal Tone
    . 2006, 38 (02): 240-246.  
    Abstract   PDF (564KB) ( 1535 )
    In this study, Cardiac vagal tone and heart period were measured in a sample of 104 children (aged 2, 4, and 6) to evaluate the development of vagal regulation at rest and during age-appropriate mild stress task. The development patterns of child baseline vagal tone and child vagal suppression were different: (1) Child baseline vagal tone increased with age in early childhood. The baseline vagal tone of 4 years and 6 years were significantly higher than that of 2 years, but there was no significant difference between that of 4 years and 6 years. Child baseline heart period increased with age. (2) Child vagal suppression didn’t increase with age. Child baseline-to-task change in heart period of 6 years was significantly higher than that of 2 years, and there were no differences between those of other groups
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    Effects of Venlafaxine for the Attention Networks Of Depression Disorder
    . 2006, 38 (02): 247-253.  
    Abstract   PDF (520KB) ( 1883 )
    Objective To estimate attention networks in patients with depression and the effects of venlafaxine (selective noradrenergic and serotonin reuptake inhibition) on them. Method 32 Patients met CCMD-3 criteria for major depression were treated with venlafaxine and were tested with Attention networks test, SDS, HAMD before and after 6 weeks. Results Compared with control, the alerting and executive control attention networks effects were significantly changed while the orienting network effects were not differences. The alerting network effects were negatively correlated with the factor 6 (sleep disturbance) in HAMD. After treatmeant, the alerting effects were significantly increased, these changes were positive correlated with the improvement of factor 6. The executive control network effects, SDS and HAMD were significantly reduced. The orienting effects were not changed. Conclusion Depression patients suffered alerting and executive control networks deficits which were correlated with symptoms. Venlafaxine selectively impacted the alerting and executive control attention networks in depression, but had no effects on orienting network
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    Relationship among Achievement Goal Orientation ,Test Anxiety and Working Memory
    . 2006, 38 (02): 254-261.  
    Abstract   PDF (747KB) ( 2685 )

    152 middle school students were recruited to investigate the relationship among achievement goal orientation, test anxiety and WM. Correlation analysis indicated that each orientation of 2´2 achievement goal frameworks had a distinctively relationship pattern with test anxiety and WM span. Performance-approach goal was negatively related to test anxiety and positively to WM span. Mastery-approach goal had no correlation with worry, emotionality and WM span. Performance-avoidance goal was positively related to worry and emotionality, and negatively to WM span. Mastery-avoidance goal was positively related to worry and emotionality. Furthermore, Structural equation modeling analysis showed test anxiety was a mediator between performance-approach goal and WM, between performance-avoidance and WM.. Emotionality was a significant mediator between Performance-approach , Performance-avoidance goal and WM ,but worry was not

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    Emotional Labor: Surface Acting and Deep Acting, Which One is Better?


    . 2006, 38 (02): 262-270.  
    Abstract   PDF (847KB) ( 2824 )

    The study was to investigate which one of the emotional labors, surface acting and deep acting, had better effect on later performance and self authenticity. Combined Muraven, Tice & Boumeister(1998)’s dual-task paradigm and Gross (1998)’s emotion regulation paradigm, conducting two kinds of emotional labor by instructions before watching emotional (most sadness and pain) eliciting film, while emotional consequences in subjective report, expressive behavior and physiological responses were measured, and then two effects of emotional labors, e.g. later mathematics performance and self authenticity, were tested as well. The results: (1) One need to pay significant effort and feel difficult to perform surface- and deep-action in emotional labors, and deep-action would attract more attention; (2) Both surface-action and deep- action resulted in decreased sadness, but deep-action activated stronger physiological response (e.g. less increased in R-R interval inter-beat).(3)surface-action resulted in poorer performance in mathematics and lower self authenticity. Conclusion: If it is needed to keep smiling under sad experience, deep-action is a positive one

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    Transactive Memory System in Work Teams from High Technology Firms and Its Consequences

    . 2006, 38 (02): 271-280.  
    Abstract   PDF (822KB) ( 1847 )
    Transactive memory system (TMS) has been recently identified as an important factor to influence team performance. TMS is the shared division of cognitive labor with respect to the encoding, storage, retrieval, and communication of information from different domains that often develops as team members have better understanding of each other’s expertise. Accumulating evidence has shown that TMS explains team performance in the laboratory, but few studies have been conducted in field settings because there is no proper TMS measure for field settings. We examined the relationships between TMS and other phenomena with a large sample of 190 high-tech work teams in China. We found that two items in the TMS scale developed by Lewis (2003) should be dropped. Furthermore, our results indicate that, TMS is significantly related to trust among team members and the extent to which team members share a cooperative goal. In addition, TMS is both positively related to team performance rated by the team manager and significantly related to team cohesion. In this study, individual members’ scores on various constructs were aggregated into the corresponding team-level scores, and the high agreement index (rwg) among team members legitimize the aggregation. This method should be followed in examining organizational phenomena at the team/group level
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    Perceived Organizational Support(POS) of the Employees
    . 2006, 38 (02): 281-287.  
    Abstract   PDF (543KB) ( 2607 )
    The structure dimensions of employees’ perceived organizational support (POS) and the relations between POS and correlative variables were investigated in this study. The results showed that Chinese employees’ POS should be multi-dimension structures which is different with the single dimension of POS of Western countries. The Chinese employees’ POS structure is three dimensions model which include Working Support, Identifying Value and Caring about Well-being. The POS have the active effect on the affective commitment and altruism behaviors. The procedural equity influence the form of POS
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    The Effect of Shared Mental Model on Virtual Team’s Effectiveness
    . 2006, 38 (02): 288-296.  
    Abstract   PDF (729KB) ( 2245 )
    This study investigated 62 virtual teams, distinguished between identified mental model and distributed mental model, and tested the relationship among team characteristics, shared mental model and virtual team effectiveness using hierarchical linear modeling. Results demonstrated that two kind of shared mental model were positively related to team effectiveness; time variable would weaken the positive relationship between identified shared mental model and task performance, and enhance the effect of distributed shared mental model on task effectiveness; virtual team size would affect the relationship between shared mental model and cooperative effectiveness, team size could enhance the effect of identified mental model on cooperative effectiveness, but weaken the relationship between distributed mental model and cooperative effectiveness
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    Transformational Leadership and Employee Work Attitudes:The Mediating Effects of Multidimensional Psychological Empowerment
    . 2006, 38 (02): 297-307.  
    Abstract   PDF (922KB) ( 4484 )
    Accumulating evidence suggests that transformational leadership is positively associated with such leadership effectiveness as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and OCB. However few studies have examined relations between the components of transformational leadership and different work outcomes. Also the mechanisms and processes by which transformational leadership exert its influence have not been adequately addressed in the literature. More work is also needed to examine factors that may serve to mediate the linkage between transformational leadership and work outcomes. As proposed by Vandeenberghe (1999), psychological empowerment may be a powerful mediator of transformational leadership effects. In the present study, we explored the relation between the different components of transformational leadership, on the one hand, and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, on the other hand. We also examined the contribution of each of the four dimensions of Thomas and Velthouse’s (1990) multidimensional conceptualization of psychological empowerment in mediating the relation between transformational leadership and job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.
    The following measures were administered to a sample of 744 employees from 14 companies: The Transformational Leadership Questionnaire (TLQ) developed by Li & Shi (2005); the Psychological Empowerment Scale (PES) developed by Spreitzer (1995); the Job Satisfaction Scale developed by Tsui, Egan and O’Reilly III (1992), and the Affective Commitment Scale developed by Allen and Meyer (1996 ). All scales were subjected to reliability analysis and factor analysis before data analysis. Internal consistency reliability estimates ranged from 0.69 to 0.89, suggesting adequate reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) results supported the four-dimension structure (morale modeling, visionary motivating, charisma and individualized consideration) of the TLQ. CFA results also confirmed the four-dimension structure of the PES. Finally, exploratory factor analysis extracted one factor from the job satisfaction items and a single factor was also extract from the affective commitment items.
    Structure equations modeling (SEM) was used to explore the relations among transformational leadership, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment using the model generation strategy described by Jöreskog & Sörbom (1996). The data were randomly spilt into two parts. One part was submitted to an exploratory SEM and the other part was submitted to a confirmatory SEM. The exploratory SEM began with s fully-mediated model in which the components of psychological empowerment fully mediated the relation between the components of transformational leadership, on the one hand, and job satisfaction and organizational commitment, on the other hand. Some meaningful adjustment was later made according to the modification index (MI) generated by AMOS 4.0 until a statistically acceptable model was derived. This model was then submitted to a confirmatory SEM which yielded satisfactory goodness of fit statistics, including c2 /df,GFI,NFI,IFI,TLI,and CFI.
    The results showed that different components of transformational leadership had different impact on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Specifically, morale modeling and visionary motivating were powerful predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, respectively; charisma and individualized consideration were robust predictors of job satisfaction. To a lesser degree, psychological empowerment mediated the relation between transformational leadership and employee work attitude. Specifically, the mediating effect involved the relation between visionary motivating and morale modeling on the one hand and job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the other hand. Similarly, competence mediated the relation between articulate vision and organizational commitment. However, neither self-determination nor impact mediated the relation between transformational leadership and job satisfaction or organizational commitment. A none component of psychological empowerment mediated the relation between charisma and individualized consideration, on the one hand, and job satisfaction on the other. Limitations and future research directions are discussed
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    Predictive Research on Psychological Selection of Cadets in Military Academy
    . 2006, 38 (02): 308-316.  
    Abstract   PDF (797KB) ( 2154 )
    AIM: This paper was to establish a suitable psychological selection method of cadets in military academy and to provide a new idea on the study of psychological selection by analyzing the main experiences and outcomes of 13 years’ study on the primary officer’s psychological selection. METHOD: The competency model of cadets in military academy was built by the deductive method and Delphi expert assessment. 334 cadets from a military academy were tested with MBTI-G,MMPI-2, and Group Intelligence Test of Army Academy Students after entrance, and evaluated with the competency model of cadets in military academy before graduation. And 38 cadets were appraised on the job performance in the military after 1.5 years of graduation. RESULTS: Preferable prediction was found in 3 dimensions of MMTI-G on the competency. There were differences of personality type between the best group and the worst group, and the worst group scored higher on seven scales of MMPI-2 than the best group. Group Intelligence Test of Army Academy Students could preferably predict the factor of intelligence. The prediction efficiency of MMPI-2, MBTI-G and the intelligence test was 72.13%, 71.90%and 66.70%, and the integrative efficiency of three scales was 84.66%. The prediction efficiency on the cadets’ behavior in military of the competency model was up to 70%. There was significant correlation between the competency model and the job performance(r=0.36~0.64). CONCLUSION: This study established a set of efficient psychological selection thoughts and methods for the military cadets
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