The present study uses unconstrainted structural equation model to explore the interactive effects of adolescents’ Neuroticism and internet service preference on internet addiction, by surveying a sample of 339 adolescents through questionnaires. Results from this study indicate that the interactive effects of adolescents’ Neuroticism and internet social, recreational and information service preference, except business service preference, are significant: (1) On average effect, adolescents’ Neuroticism, internet social, recreational, and business service preference have a positive effect on internet addiction, and internet information service preference has no significant effect on internet addiction; (2) Neuroticism moderates the relationships between internet social, recreational, business service preference and internet addiction. Especially, these relationships are stronger for adolescents high in Neuroticism; (3) Further slope tests indicate that, for high Neuroticism adolescents, internet information service preference still has no effect on internet addiction; for low Neuroticism adolescents, internet social and recreational service preference have no significant effect on internet addiction
These two studies extended existing research on job analysis ratings of identical jobs in several ways. First, we examined the effect of job performance on job analysis ratings with individual demographic variables controlled for. The resulting partial correlations from the first study were different or moderately different from the zero-order correlations without partialling out the demographic variations. Second, following the suggestion by Lindel et al. (1998) and Van Iddekinge et al. (2005) that organizational level variables may affect job analysis ratings of the same job in different organizations, we explored the influence of task performance on job analysis ratings of one job in one organization. Therefore, in each study, the potential effects of possible organization-level variables on job analysis ratings were controlled for. In many ways, our analyses ensured a relatively stringent evaluation of the effects of job performance on job analysis ratings. Third, the findings indicated that task performance influenced job analysis ratings of many scales, including level ratings and importance ratings. Fourth, consistent with Borman et al (1992), the present results suggest that differences in job analysis ratings may reflect real differences, either among tasks assigned to different job incumbents under identical job titles or differences in ways by which job incumbents complete the same task. One practical implication is that, when conducting job analysis in organizations, practitioners need to consider the potential influence of task performance on incumbents’ job analysis ratings as well as individual demographic variables.
Mediated Moderator and Moderated Mediator