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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 38 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    The Forgetting of False Memory after Short Time Delay
    Yang-Zhiliang,Zhou-Chu,Xie-Rui,Wan-Lulu
    . 2006, 38 (01): 1-6.  
    Abstract   PDF (538KB) ( 2250 )
    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, two experiments were conducted to investigate the forgetting trends of false memory after short time delay. In within-subject design, false-alarm rates of both critical lures and medium related lures increased with time (immediate, 1/2 hour, and one hour). However, in between-subject design, false-alarm rates of critical lures didn’t change with time. The results reveal that false memory could be steady at least if only forgetting takes place, but variable if some other disturbing processes like repeating false recognition in within-subject experiment are mixed with forgetting. Furthermore, the effect of test delay was combined with the effect of association and the test context. The results are discussed under source-monitoring framework and activation-spread theory
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    An ERP Study on Conditional Reasoning
    Qiu-Jiang,Zhang-Qinglin,Chen-Antao,Yang-Hongsheng,LuoYuejia
    . 2006, 38 (01): 7-14.  
    Abstract   PDF (705KB) ( 1888 )
    Event-related brain potentials were measured when 13 normal young participants finished four kinds of conditional reasoning (MP, AC, DA, MT) tasks and one kind of baseline task(BS). Results showed that there were no amplitude modulations of early components. However MP and DA elicited a more positive EPR deflection on the left and a more negative EPR deflection on the right hemisphere than did BS task in the time window from 450~1100 msec after onset of the stimuli 2. On the contrary MT and AC elicited a more negative EPR deflection on the left and a more positive EPR deflection on the right hemisphere than did BS task in the time window form 450~1100 msec. These ERP components elicited by five different tasks might reflect that right and left hemisphere have different ability of cognitive process in reasoning. In additional Voltage map of the difference wave between reasoning tasks and baseline task showed strong activity in frontal-temporal pathway, Our result support dual-process theory (Goel)
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    Dissociations between Implicit and Explicit Memory: An ERP Study of Face Recognition
    Meng-Yingfang,Guo-Chunyan
    . 2006, 38 (01): 15-21.  
    Abstract   PDF (731KB) ( 2567 )
    The study adopted a “study-test” pattern to explore the relationship of implicit and explicit memory in face domain. In study phase, selective attention task is to processing a word superimposed on a face, so as to controlling the processing level of faces. In recognition phase, the task is old/new discrimination. We compared the ERPs produced by new faces with those produced by old faces that were misclassified by the subjects as new, which represents a neural correlate of implicit memory, and the ERPs produced by new faces with those produced by old faces that were classified as old, which represents a neural correlate of explicit memory. The results indicated that, the neural correlates of implicit and explicit memory have been dissociated within a singe task. Explicit memory effect was observed in ERPs from 400ms after stimulus onset, at prefrontal and frontal electrodes. Implicit memory effect was seen in ERPs at 300~500ms from central and parietal electrodes. Our results were similar to results that come from experiments on word, which support the issue that implicit memory and explicit memory have commonality between stimulus domains
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    The Relation between Working Memory Span and Context Effect during Chinese Sentence Reading
    Lu-Zhongyi,Fan-Ning
    . 2006, 38 (01): 22-29.  
    Abstract   PDF (743KB) ( 1950 )

    This study investigated the context effect during Chinese sentence reading. Naming task was used via rapid serial visual representation with reaction time as index. Context effect comes from two sources: the lexical semantic priming and the sentential thematic priming which were investigated separately here. The results indicated that (1) The lexical semantic priming was found from all the subjects under the two conditions; (2) there was thematic priming in high-span readers except under the interference condition, but never in low-span readers. It supports the theory of Working Memory Capacity Constraint that the cognitive processes depending on abundance resources are constrained by working memory capacity

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    Mechanism of Constructing and Updating Situation Models in Text-Reading
    Wang-Ruiming,Mo-Lei,Jia-Demei,Leng-Ying,Li-Li
    . 2006, 38 (01): 30-40.  
    Abstract   PDF (1037KB) ( 1519 )
    Moving window display technique was used to investigate the mechanism of constructing and updating situation models in text-reading. According to whether the characteristic elaboration was consistent with subsequent target action carried out by the protagonist, the experimental materials were divided into three categories: enablement, disablement and re-ablement version. In experiment 1, the mechanism of constructing and updating situation models in text with explicit goal information was investigated to support the here-and-now hypothesis. In experiment 2, the mechanism of constructing and updating situation models in text without explicit goal information was investigated to support the memory-based text processing view. In experiment 3, the difference between the here-and-now hypothesis and the memory-based text processing view was further investigated with probe tasks. The results indicated that the mechanism of constructing and updating situation models in text-reading was different with the changing of information. A processing theory of bi-mechanism for constructing and updating situation models is suggested, which proposes that the mechanism of constructing and updating situation models in normal reading includes both coordinating integration supported by the memory-based text processing view and goal-information integration supported by the here-and-now hypothesis
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    Effects of Pinyin Learning on Development of Phonological Awarenessin Kindergarten
    Ren-Ping,Xu-Fen,Ruiping
    . 2006, 38 (01): 41-46.  
    Abstract   PDF (487KB) ( 2153 )
    The Study examined how Pinyin learning affects the development of Chinese and English phonological awareness while children are in the kindergarten. Sixty five 5-years children from two kindergartens were participated the study. They were tested twice in the beginning and end of the one year term. The results showed that Learning Pinyin promoted the development of onset-rime awareness of Chinese and English, but syllable awareness and end-phonemic awareness of English. The Cross-language Transfer of Phonological Awareness was discussed
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    3.5~5.5 Years Older’s Inductive Reasoning in Similarity vs Conception Confliction Condition
    Long-Changquan,-Wu-Ruiming,-Li-Hong,-Chen-Antoao,-Feng-Tingyong,-Li-Fuhong
    . 2006, 38 (01): 47-55.  
    Abstract   PDF (912KB) ( 4769 )
    Total 275 children aged in 37~71 months had been tested their inductive reasoning in a similarity-conception confliction condition in four different hinted information task. The firstly condition was that aimed stimulus had no same audition information with selected stimulus; the secondly condition was that aimed stimulus had the same perceptual symbol with one of selected stimulus; the third condition was that aimed stimulus had the same conceptual symbol with one of selected stimulus; the fourth condition was that aimed stimulus had the same perceptual symbol with one of selected stimulus and had the same conceptual symbol with another selected stimulus. The results showed that no significant difference on based-similarity and based-conception in inductive reasoning in 3.5 years old children in four condition, and 4.5 and 5.5 years old children can base on conception in their inductive reasoning in four condition. The results also showed that children may have a gradual transition from similarity-based to category-based induction, but the age of transition may occur before 4.5, not before 7~8
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    Predictions on Different Components of Early Theory of Mind by Diverse Tasks of Executive Function

    Zhang-Ting,Wu-Ruiming,Li-Hong,Philip-David-Zelazo,Zhang-Li,Liao-Yu,

    . 2006, 38 (01): 56-62.  
    Abstract   PDF (689KB) ( 2298 )
    The Unexpected Location Task, the Unexpected Content Task, and other three different types of executive function (EF) tasks were used to investigate the relationship between EF and theory of mind (ToM) in 60 children at 2 ages (3 and 4 years). Results suggested that performance in the EF tasks combined with working memory and inhibitory control could well predict performance of the ability to discriminate self and other’s mental state; In the early development of false belief understanding, the relations between executive function and theory of mind focus on: the relation between understanding of self false belief and the executive function combined with working memory and inhibitory control ; the relation between understanding of other’s false belief and working memory executive function
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    Development of the Concept of Gender Constancy in Preschoolers
    Fan-Zhentao,Fang-Fuxi
    . 2006, 38 (01): 63-69.  
    Abstract   PDF (588KB) ( 2045 )
    The purpose of present study is to investigate the development of the concept of gender constancy in preschoolers aged of 3, 4, 5 and 6 with modified method of interview. The results showed that the concept of gender constancy developed in terms of 3 continuous levels: Level 1. The notion of gender identity was acquired in 3~4 years old; Followed by level 2 gender stability, that is, children (around 4 and 5 years old) got to know that gender could not be changed with time passing by, and, finally level 3. the notion of gender consistency developed speedily in 5、6 years old. More than a half of sample of 6-olds has already acquired the concept of gender constancy. In the clarified condition the rate of achievement for passing the tasks in children was increased greatly. There is no difference of the development between self gender constancy and others one in preschoolers, except 3-olds
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    4~6 Years old Children’s Understanding of the Origins and Controllability of Dreams
    Xu-Qinmei,Li-Qinggong,-Lin-Jie
    . 2006, 38 (01): 70-78.  
    Abstract   PDF (817KB) ( 1961 )
    The purpose of this study was to reveal preschool children’s understanding of the origins and controllability of dreams. 173 children aged 4, 5, 6 were interviewed and the results showed: (1) Preschool children understood the roles of experience, knowledge in the origins of dream as adults did, but it’s not available for preference. (2) Frequency of participants who realized dreamers’ unsatisfied desires could influence their dreams in 6-year-olds (about 43%) was larger than that of 4- to 5-year-olds (about 20%), and smaller than that of adults (about 73%). (3) Preschool children didn’t understand that dreaming could not be controlled; they didn’t realize dreaming was an unconscious process, and approximately 80% of them believed that individuals’ desires could control their dreams
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    Cognitive Processing on Children’s Self-Imposed Delay of Gratification
    Han-Yuchang,Ren-Guiqin
    . 2006, 38 (01): 79-84.  
    Abstract   PDF (589KB) ( 2080 )
    With Model 504 eye tracker made in American applied science laboratory, two experiments were conducted to investigate children’s attention deployment strategies and developmental features of different age group children’s delay ability during self-imposed delay period. Delay time and eye movement features such as fixation duration, fixation number and saccade number were recorded while viewing symbolic presentation of the delay rewards to assess attentional processes. The results showed: (1)In each study, children paid more attention to color photograph than to black-and-white photograph of delay rewards and facilitate their self-imposed delay of gratification while viewing the color pictures;(2)Preschool children enhanced their delay ability when given “wish strategy” rather than “efficacy strategy” instruction; (3)The elder children spontaneously showed more attention to the pictures and had longer delay time than that of the young children
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    Cognitive Characteristics of Emotional Display Rule Among Children with Learning Disabilities

    Yu-Guoliang,Hou Ruihe,LuoXiaolu
    . 2006, 38 (01): 85-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (615KB) ( 1931 )
    Emotional display rule cognitive tasks and emotion decision figures were employed in the present experiment. 90 children selected from 1st, 3rd and 5th grade in a primary school (44 learning disabilities and 46 normal) were interviewed individually with 6 stories. The results indicated that expression regulation knowledge of learning disabilities and normal children increased as their grade increased, but the developmental level was different between two groups. There were no significant gender differences, and group and grade interaction was not found. Moreover, learning disabilities children report less social-orient goals than normal children, and there were no significant differences in self-protective goals. Comparing the combination of emotion display rule use and goals in the two samples, suggested that learning disabilities children lack the ability to integrate different emotion knowledge, in addition, normal children displayed more cognitive flexibility according to different interpersonal relationship than learning disabilities
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    Job Characteristics that Affecting Job Burnout among Secondary School Teachers in China’s Rural Area
    Gan-Yiqun,Wang-Xiaochun,Zhang-Yiwen,Zhang-Ying
    . 2006, 38 (01): 92-98.  
    Abstract   PDF (565KB) ( 2602 )
    20 secondary school teachers in china’s rural area were interviewed and content analysis was conducted. It was found that interpersonal depletion and social prejudice played an important role in causing their job burnout. Based on the results of the interview, an indigenous Chinese job characteristics inventory for secondary school teachers was developed. 266 participants completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis indicated a 4-factor structure: Lack of Social Support, Business, Interpersonal Depletion and Social Prejudice. Interpersonal depletion and social prejudice contributed an incremental variance of more than 5% in predicting total score of job burnout and lack of passion score. Interpersonal depletion affected job burnout via energy exhaustion, whereas social prejudice affected job burnout via all three paths. The present study revealed the two important factors that affecting job burnout among secondary school teachers in china’s rural area: interpersonal depletion and social prejudice
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    Psychological Empowerment: Measurement and its Effect on Employees’ Work Attitude in China
    Li-Chaoping,Xiaoxuan,Shi-Kan-,Chen-Xuefeng
    . 2006, 38 (01): 99-106.  
    Abstract   PDF (732KB) ( 3974 )
    The factorial validity of the psychological empowerment scale (PES) developed by Spreitzer was investigated in Chinese context. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) of data from a sample of 395 employees from three different companies showed support for Spreitzer’s four empowerment dimensions: Meaning, self-efficacy, self-determination, and impact. And Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for all four subscales were above 0.70. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of data from another sample of 942 employees further confirmed PES’s factorial validity. Finally structure equations modeling (SEM) was used to cross-validate the relationship between psychological empowerment and jobs satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention and job burnout using the second sample. The results suggested that meaning was positive related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment and negative related to turnover intention and job burnout; self-determination was positive related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment; self-efficacy was positive related to organizational commitment
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    Construct Dimension of the Enterprise Staff’s Perceptions of Organizational Politics
    Ma-Chao,Ling-Wenquan,Fang-Liluo
    . 2006, 38 (01): 107-115.  
    Abstract   PDF (760KB) ( 1875 )
    With the investigation of total 1647 in 29 enterprises, applied the perceptions of organizational politics questionnaire developed by researchers, the construct dimension of perception of organizational politics had been discussed. The results of exploratory factor analysis on the first half of sample shows that staff’s perceptions of organizational politics contains three dimensions. Three dimension constructs had been tested in the confirmatory factor analysis at the other half of sample. Finally, We draw a conclusion that three dimension of constructs of perception of organizational politics are self-serving behaviors, Pay and promotion, and Coworker relations. The construct and content of perceptions of organizational politics were discussed at the end
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    The Measurement of Cooperative and Competitive Personality

    Xie-Xiaofei,Yu-Yuanyuan,Chen-Xi,Chen-Xiao-Ping

    . 2006, 38 (01): 116-125.  
    Abstract   PDF (865KB) ( 2346 )
    Analyzing cooperative and competitive phenomenon in organizations in personality perspective, this study explored the cooperative and competitive personalities with both qualitative and quantitative techniques. And we developed the first scale to measure personal cooperative and competitive personality in China.
    This study was composed of two parts. First, based on the in-depth interview, we developed and revised the scale of cooperative and competitive personality (CCPS). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) showed that cooperative personality and competitive personality both have three sub-dimensions that form a cooperative and competitive personality 3-dimensions model. Second, we analyzed the validity of this scale using new sample and made a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The result showed that this scale has satisfactory reliability and validity and satisfactory SEM model fit
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    Confucian Coping and Its Role to Mental Health
    Jing-Huaibin
    . 2006, 38 (01): 126-134.  
    Abstract   PDF (752KB) ( 2621 )
    This article highlighted that theoretically there were two approaches to study Chinese coping in Chinese social background. One was based on the coping theories of the west psychology. The other should be based on the nature of Chinese culture. This article was focused on the latter. Confucian coping was proposed with consideration that Confucianism has been the mainstream of Chinese culture. Confucian coping emphasizes that adversity or stress can help individuals growing by which it is chance to develop trait and ability to become an achievement person. The features of Confucian coping are pro-frustration, spiritual, whole and developmental. On this theoretical analysis the Confucian coping questionnaire was developed. The CES-D、SAS、SWLS were chosen as index of mental health. The data of 530 participants showed there were positive relations between Confucian coping and mental health. Exploratory factor Analysis showed that the Confucian coping has 4 factors: optimism in the adversity, the viewpoints to “fate”, the responsibility as human beings, the role of adversity to individual growing. The mechanism of Confucian coping to mental health was discussed
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    Information of IRT Multilevel Item
    Du-Wenjiu
    . 2006, 38 (01): 135-144.  
    Abstract   PDF (712KB) ( 1649 )
    The objective was to give out calculate formula of multilevel item information function, and give some examples of multilevel item information. Results was: 1) at first discuss the sample sky of the test item by a example; 2) give out the probability function and information function of multilevel item; 3) discuss the application of multilevel item information function in practice by a few examples
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    Feeling-of-Knowing and Feeling-of-not-Knowing: A Dual-process Hypothesis on Metamemory Judgments
    Luo Jing
    . 2006, 38 (01): 145-156.  
    Abstract   PDF (1334KB) ( 1724 )
    Although studies on feeling-of-knowing (FOK) generally assume it is a continuum that varies from weak to strong, recent neuroimaging studies indicated FOK and feeling-of-not-knowing (FOnK) involved different neural networks. This suggested FOK and FOnK might be supported by distinct cognitive brain processes and implied a dual-process model of FOK. In this paper, some theoretical aspects of this model were considered. Different from the accessibility model that postulated FOK relied on the accessibility of retrieved information, dual-process model proposed the accessible information were to be evaluated and discriminated by metamemory mechanism. The task-related part of the information was accepted and taken in the metamemory prediction, constituting the positive FOK, whereas the task-unrelated part of the information was rejected and excluded from the metamemory prediction, constituting the negative FOnK. The behavioral evidences that supported the dual-process model were also discussed
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    Remember Professor Cao Richang
    Zhang- Kan
    . 2006, 38 (01): 157-158.  
    Abstract   PDF (217KB) ( 1041 )
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