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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 8 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    DISTANCE PERCEPTION DURING POSTURAL CHANGES
    CHING CHI-CHENG, PENG JUI-HSIANG, LIN CHUNG-HSIEN, FANG YUN-CHIU
    . 1964, 8 (04): 3-13.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 69 )
    S sits on a tilting chair which can be turned laterally from normal position (0°) to an upside-down position (180°) and makes distance judgments for lengths of 40, 80, and 120 metres on two ground tracks arranged in a V shape, with a standard stimulus on one track and a comparison, presented successively, on the other. Distance judgment is most accurate when S sits in the normal position; errors increase as body posture deviates from normal. A strong tendency is shown in the tilted postures to underestimate distance and this is maximum in the upside-down posture. This experiment suggests that normal body posture acts as a basis for reference in the perception of the outer world.
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    OBSERVATION DISTANCE AND ITS EFFECTS ON VISUAL DISCRIMINATION IN GYMNASIUMS
    HSIEH KUANG-CHAO, HS(?) CHIANG-SHENG, CHIN CHIEN, TAN CHIH-MIN
    . 1964, 8 (04): 31-39.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 109 )
    Two experiments were carried out to study visual acuity and depth acuity in gymnasiums. Due to the fact that the grand-stand seats in gymnasiums are built on ascending steps, thus the farther seats are poor for visual acuity, however, their higher positions are favorable for depth discrimination. It was found that: 1. Visual acuity decreases lineally with distance; 2. Depth acuity increases with ascending height within a certain distance and remains constant at still further distances. It was concluded that visual acuity is a principle factor that influences visual discrimination in gymnasiums, and that the best seats are not the foremost ones, but rather those situated near the 7th. row.
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    STUDIES ON THE METHODS OF MEMORIZATION USED BY JUNIOR MIDDLE SCHOOL PUPILS Ⅱ.METHODS FOR MEMORIZING SHORT CLASSICAL PROSE
    TUAN HUEI-FEN, CHAO LI-JU, TSAO JIH-CHANG
    . 1964, 8 (04): 40-51.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    A short classical prose, which consisted of 40 sentences, 180 words altogether, was memorized by 63 junior middle school girls. The various methods of memorization used by the pupils are: 1) Memorizing sentence by sentence; 2) Memorizing sentence by sentence progressively, i. e. first memorizing the 1st sentence, then 1st-2nd, 1st-2nd-3rd, etc; 3) Memorizing by parts of roughly equal number of sentences, 4) Memorizing by parts divided according to the content; 5) Memorizing with the aid of an outline; 6) Memorizing by first analyzing the content and the structure of the prose. The last method was the most effective and the first was the least. The fifth one was second to the most efficient, and the other three were about the same.It seems that the subjects who used the first three methods mastered the material part by part cumulatively and those using the other three methods first made a framework and then laid on the details step by step. It was suggested that chunking, association with former experiences and outlines-making were involved, as sub-processes, in memorizing classical proses.
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    AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IN CHILDREN OF 4—9 YEARS Ⅱ.GENERALIZATION DEVELOPMENT AS REFLECTED IN CHILDREN'S ABILITY TO CLASSIFY
    WANG HSIEN-TIEN, LIU CHING-HO, FAN TSUN-JEN
    . 1964, 8 (04): 52-60.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 68 )
    This is the second report on the investigation into development of concepts in children of 4—9 years of age.This study comprises two parts: the first aiming to investigate the developmental trends reflected in children's ability to classify, and the second concentrating on the age at which classification can be seen as a turning point in conceptual thinking.108 children of 4—9 years were each asked to sort objects depicted on cards, according to his or her own ideas of classification. Another 72 children in the age groups of 5, 5 1/2, and 6 performed the second part of the experiment.The results indicate:1) Children under 4 failed to carry out classification.2) Children of 5—6 years showed a rudimentary ability to classify but their classification was mainly on the perceptual level.3) Beyond 6—7 years, the children showed a conceptual ability in classification. Their conceptual thinking seemed to reach a new level.4) In children from 4—9 years old, the turning point from perceptual to conceptual thinking as reflected in ability to classify seemed to fall between the age of 5—6, and especially 5 1/2—6.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITY ON SOLVING VERBAL PROBLEMS IN DIVISION
    CHENG TSU-HSIN
    . 1964, 8 (04): 69-76.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 81 )
    The aim of this research is to study the effect of visual teaching method and external activity on solving verbal problems in division in the second grade children of the ten-year school. The results show: (1) The external activity helps lower grade children to understand verbal problems in division; (2) In order to increase the efficiency of this teaching method, the conditions should be so arranged that the children have already mastered multiplication skillfully, and they take a more active attitude towards; learning.
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    PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE FORGETTING OF AUXILIARIES AND OF SUBSTANTIVES IN FIRST GRADE JUNIOR MIDDLE SCHOOL PUPILS
    YOU HSING-SHEN
    . 1964, 8 (04): 77-80.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 75 )
    Pupils were required to memorize 4 paragraphs of text materials (3 paragraphs of classical prose and 2 paragraphs of modern prose). By means of reproductions made at various intervals after memorization, the retention of substantive and auxiliary words was examined, which gave the following results:1) The forgetting ratio was greater for auxiliaries. This was due to the fact that the pupils memorized only the general meaning of the text, thus overlooked the role of auxiliary words in a sentence, which were thus easily forgotten.2) There were two kinds of manifestations in the forgetting: omission and error. This might be due to generalization and inhibition that took place in the higher nervous activity.3) Pupils' knowledge and experience affected the understanding of the text, idiomatic expressions also influenced the reproduction.
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    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CEREBRAL FUNCTIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENICS AS SHOWN IN SIMPLE REACTIONS TO SOUND STIMULI Ⅰ.EXPERIMENT ON PARANOID PATIENTS
    SUNG WEI-CHEN, CHENG FU-SHAN, LI HSIN-TIEN
    . 1964, 8 (04): 81-87.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 118 )
    1. Simple reactions of schizophrenics of paranoid type with different clinical pictures, to sound stimuli of two intensities were slower than that of normal persons. Among these patients, those with active symptoms made the slowest reaction, the unstable ones came next, and the reaction time of the remissive patients was the shortest.2. Schizophrenics of the paranoid type showed 3 kinds of characteristics in simple reaction: (1) Short reaction time with obvious regularity in accordance with intensity of the stimulus. This might be the indication that the general disturbance of cerebral function was not severe. These were mostly patients in remission; (2) Short reaction time with no obvious regularity in accordance with intensity of the stimulus. This was evidently an indication of cerebral functional disturbance in an equalization phase and a paradoxical phase; (3) Long reaction time. This indicated serious functional disturbance of the narcotic phase. Patients with active and unstable symptoms belonged to this group.3. After talking about matters related to paranoid delusions, or after performing a complex discrimination reaction test, the cerebral functional disturbance in most of the patients became more severe in various extents.
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    THE IDENTIFICATION OF SIMPLE “BINARY DIGITS” IN MONKEYS
    LIU SHIH-YIH, YUAN CHWAN-CHAO, LIN TEH-LIANG
    . 1964, 8 (04): 88-98.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    Twelve adolescent monkeys——3 Macacus Rhesus, 2 Macacus Nemistrinus, 3 Lyssodes Speciosus melli, 1 Macacus Irus, 1 Papio Hamadryas, 1 Mandrillus Sphinx and 1 Cebus Albifrons——were used to investigate the identification of recurrent regularity ("10" of binary digits, which is equivalent to "2" of decimal digits) of the environment. The monkeys were tested in a modified WGTA. The stimuli used were identical rectangles. The Ss were first trained on two-response "10" and then on extension of "10" series of 4, 6 and 8 responses. In all phases of testing the criterion of mastery was 80% correct responses in 2—3 successive trials. The principal findings were as follows:(1) Method of "extension" showed that the monkey could master the acquisition of the model of "10" of binary digits.(2) Slow original learning was the essential basis of fast identification of recurrent regularity of the environment.(3) During learning the Ss exhibited definite regularity of pattern of responses. Every new extension of "10" was easily mastered, but "1" signal of the new extension was always interfered with the previous "0" signal.(4) There was no exhibition of "spontaneous alternation" during "single-alternation" learning based primarily on visual discrimination responses in monkeys.
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