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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 9 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES ON THE RECOGNITION AND GENERALIZATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN Ⅰ.DEVELOPMENT OF RECOGNITION UNDER TACHISTOSCOPIC CONDITION
    TSAO CHUAN-YUNG SHEN YEH
    . 1965, 9 (01): 3-11.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    In this experiment was studied the development of recognition of letters, familiar and unfamiliar Chinese characters, and Korean characters. Three types of developmental curves were found: 1) negative accelerated curve for familiar Chinese characters; 2) positive accelerated curve for unfamiliar Chinese characters; 3) simple accelerated curve for Korean Characters. It was suggested that there were two greater developmental changes in the process of mastering Chinese characters by primary school children: the one was found immediately after the first month of learning Chinese characters and the other was between the 1st and 2nd grade. Under different teaching conditions, the occurence of the second change might be found in different stages of the 1st grade.
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    STUDIES ON THE METHODS OF MEMORIZATION USED BY JUNIOR MIDDLE SCHOOL PUPILS Ⅲ.METHODS AND COURSES OF MEMORIZING CLASSICAL AND MORDERN PROSES
    TUAN HUEI-FEN AND TSAO JIH-CHANG
    . 1965, 9 (01): 12-29.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 133 )
    One classical and one modern prose were memorized separately each by 30 junior middle school girl pupils. The prose was presented first for 4 minutes and read aloud twice by the experimenter, and then presented sentence by sentence for 10 times with each sentence for 3 seconds in average. After each presentation the S wrote down what she remembered. The results showed that: (1) The methods used by Ss for memorizing the classical prose were the same as in the former study; (2) In memorizing the modern prose most of the Ss used the fifth and sixth method described in the second article of this series.The analysis of the successive dictations by the Ss confirmed that the Ss' courses of mastery of the material can be classified into two types: the one is cumulative and the other is schematic. Ss of the former type mastered the material part by part cumulatively. They could remember the exact order of the sentences of the prose. Ss of the latter type first made a frame-work and then laid on the details step by step. They grasped the key-note of the essay more readily.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S ABILITY OF SUMMARIZING THE CONTENTS OF PARAGRAPHS OF PROSE——A PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE ANALYZING AND SYNTHESIZING ACTIVITY IN THE SELECTION OF TITLES
    SHAO JUI-CHEN, SHIH JUNG-HWA AND CHUNG CHI-CH(?)AN
    . 1965, 9 (01): 30-39.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 72 )
    In order to study the analysizing and synthesizing activity of the school children in selecting a title for a paragraph of a prose, the time, component and organization of the performance in selection were measured. The results showed that: 1) significant differences in all three aspects existed among the three groups of subjects which had higher, middle and lower scores in reading and arithmetic; 2) there existed three kinds of organizations of the selection activity, which might show different levels of the generalization processes; and 3) the characteristics of the selection activity as measured with the method of the present study might be used as a criterion in determining the level of the generalization pocesses in school children.
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    THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THINKING PROCESS OF SOLVING VERBAL ARITHMETICAL PROBLEMS BY FIRST GRADE CHILDREN
    HSIAO CHIEN-YING
    . 1965, 9 (01): 52-58.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 120 )
    The experimental results indicated that the thinking process of solving verbal arithmetical problems by first grade children is of more concrete imagery thinking at the beginning, and that the verbal thinking takes place only at the later stage. During the course of learning in the first school year, the children use less and less concrete imagery for the understanding of verbal problems, and the abstract or verbal analysis develops gradually. If the teacher grasps the main contradictions involved in the development of children's thinking, and arranges the teaching and exercises accordingly, the children's ability of abstract thinking may develop more rapidly. In general the 7 years old children are capable of abstract thinking in certain fields. In the teaching of verbal problems in the first grade, the teacher should not only consider the characteristics of children's thinking, but also put emphasis on the conditions facilitating the development of children's abstract thinking.
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    THE EFFECTS OF REPRODUCTION AND CORRECTION IN THE EXERCISE ON ACHIEVEMENTS
    CHIANG CHI-PIN
    . 1965, 9 (01): 59-64.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 59 )
    Two forms of exercises in learning Chinese characters and arithmetical measures were given to the 5th and 6th grade primary school children with matched materials of equal difficulty. One consisted of reproduction of learning material and the other consisted of correction of errors.The children's achievements were compared. The results showed that: 1) pupils' achievements were better with the reproduction than with the correction of errors; 2) the errors put in the exercise caused confusions.
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    BRIGHT VS. DIM,INSTEAD OF DARK PHASE,OF SIMULTANEOUS FLASH SIGNALS AND THEIR DISCRIMINATION
    HO PAO-YUAN MA MOU-CHAO
    . 1965, 9 (01): 65-77.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 87 )
    In order to facilitate the discrimination of two nearby flash light signals and to eliminate the resulting apparent movement, the effects of different intensity levels of dim phase, instead of dark phase, intervening the repetitive flash signals, on discrimination were tested under laboratory conditions. Results revealed that (1) the disjunctive reaction time of the flash signals increased with the intensity level of the dim phase; (2) there existed an optimum intensity level of the dim phase which yielded least discrimination errors; and (3) the occurence rate of apparent movement, caused by the two flash signals, decreased with the increasing intensity level of the dim phase.Field experiments were also conducted to compare the effects of dim phase and those of dark phase. Results indicated that (1) at day time, flash signals with dim phase gave longer reaction time and more errors than that with dark phase; (2) in the night, flashes with dim phase showed less unfavourable effects on discrimination, with a tendency of shortening the reaction time and diminishing errors, though the differences were not significant; (3) the dim phase, as compared with the dark one, had definite effects on the elimination of apparent movement of two simultaneous flash signals. This suggested the possibility of utilizing a dim phase in simultaneous flash signals under certain circumstances.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE ABSTRACTION AND GENERALIZATION PROCESSES IN SCHIZOPHRENICS
    KUNG YAO-HSIEN
    . 1965, 9 (01): 78-86.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 142 )
    A sorting test was applied to 100 normals and 128 schizophrenics. The test consisted of (1) 25 pictorial cards; (2) 16 Chinese characters printed on separate cards; (3) 23 wooden blocks of different colours, forms and sizes; and (4) 10 cards, each bearing four meaningful contents, three of which are closely related, while the fourth one is different.Each subject was presented with the first three sets of test materials in succession and asked to classify them and also to give reasons for his classification. The rating of the experimental results was made in accordance with the quality of the classifications. He was then asked to point out the exceptional content from each card of the fourth set of material, and the rating was made according to the quality of answers given by him. The results were as follows:(1) For both normals and schizophrenics, the quality of classification was, in general, related to the educational level of the subjects tested, better results being obtained from those who had more advanced educational background.(2) Comparison between the two groups revealed the following differences: (a) the percentage of correct classifications was definitely higher in normals than in schizophrenics; (b) the test time was shorter for the normals than for the schizophrenics; (c) many sortings made by the schizophrenics were not only poor in quality, but also showed much deviation from the normal way of classification.
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    A SIMPLE DEVICE FOR MEASURING REACTION TIME
    KAN HUI-FANG
    . 1965, 9 (01): 101-102.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
    This paper describes a simple device, based on the principle of electrolytic chronogram, for measuring the reaction time, The apparatus registers the reaction time up to 0.01 sec.
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