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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 June 1965, Volume 9 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES ON THE RECOGNITION AND GENERALIZATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN——Ⅱ. DEVELOPMENT OF GENERALIZATION AND IT'S RELATION TO RECOGNITION
    TSAO CHUAN-YUNG SHEN YEH
    1965, 9 (02):  23-36. 
    Abstract ( 490 )  
    Hull's and Smoke's methods for the study of concept formation were adopted which, included 4 tests: recognition, generalization, identification and reproduction. The subjects in this experiment were the same as those in the previous experiment on recognition. It was found that there are also 3 types of developmental curves: 1) recognition and generalization negatively accelerated ; 2) identification positively accelerated ; 3) concepts of figures——simple accelerated curve. Correlations between different indices on generalization and recognition of different Chinese characters were significant. The results support the hypothesis that the ability of generalization is one of the basic factors which promote the recognition of Chinese characters.
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    DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES OF THE RECOGNITION AND GENERALIZATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN——Ⅲ. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISCRIMINATION OF DETAIL
    TSAO CHUAN-YUNG SHEN YEH
    1965, 9 (02):  37-42. 
    Abstract ( 474 )  
    An experiment designed to study the development of visual discrimination of Chinese characters was applied to primary school children of the 1st. , 2nd. and 5th. grades. The discrimination task required S to match a standard character with an identical one, the latter being grouped in a list of characters varied according to different principles. The results indicated: 1) Significant difference was found between 2nd. and 5th. grades. 2) Changes in character structure caused more errors in 2nd. and 5th. grades but not in the 1st. grade. This suggested that central storage plays a part in the recognition process.
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    EFFECTS OF RECITAL READING AND SILENT READING ON THE MEMORIZATION AND COMPREHENSION OF TEXT
    HS(?) YUAN-YING AND LI CHENG
    1965, 9 (02):  43-49. 
    Abstract ( 511 )  
    1. Recital reading proved to be more efficient for the memorization of poems, while silent reading were better for prose materials. Whereas, for comprehension, the method of silent reading proved to be better for both kinds of materials.2. Both recital reading and silent reading are necessary for the memorization and comprehension of text materials.
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    THE EFFECTS OF REPRODUCTION AND CORRECTION EXERCISES ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ARITHMETIC IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
    CHIANG CHI-PIN
    1965, 9 (02):  50-55. 
    Abstract ( 432 )  
    Two forms (reproduction with correction and reproduction alone) of exercises in learning new materials and reviewing old materials in arithmetic were given to the 6th grade primary school children. The results showed that the exercises with reproduction of learning materials and correction proved to be more effective.
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    A DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF COLOR AND FORM ABSTRACTION IN CHILDREN
    CHEN LI WANG AN-SHENG
    1965, 9 (02):  56-64. 
    Abstract ( 503 )  
    This was an experimental study of color and form abstraction in 267 children, ranging from 2: 6 years to 8: 1 years in age. Three definite stages of development were well established: 1) the pure form abstraction before the age of 3 years; 2) a stage of color dominance, with a peak at about 4 1/2 years; 3) the dominance of identityabstraction after the age of 6 years. Subjective factors, such as color and form preferences, sex differences and intelligence, were ruled out as playing significant roles in the differences of abstraction. Various hypotheses were discussed and a hierarchy in the cognitive process was supported. Both inter- and intra-individual differences were recognized.
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    A FOLLOWING-UP STUDY OF COLOR AND FORM ABSTRACTION IN CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT AGES
    CHEN LI WANG AN-SHENG
    1965, 9 (02):  65-66. 
    Abstract ( 538 )  
    51 children from the same three age groups of 2 1/2—3 years, 3 1/2—4 1/2 years and 5—6 years as in a former study were examined after an interval of one year to observe if they did follow the trend of the 3-stage development as suggested. The results fully confirmed our former conclusions. That repitition did not make children adopt the methods of their respective old solutions but with a tendency for the solution appropriate to a more advanced stage argues for the role of exercise in mental development.
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    THE EFFECT OF BODY-OBJECT ANGULAR RELATION ON DEPTH-DISCRIMINATION
    PENG JUI-HSIANG LIN CHUNG-HSIEN
    1965, 9 (02):  71-79. 
    Abstract ( 483 )  
    Depth-discrimination was studied with a Haward-Dalman apparatus under 3 conditions: 1) both the body and the test object tilted to 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180° correspondingly; 2) S seated in an upright position but the test object tilted to 22°, 45°, 65°, 90°; 3) the test object in upright position but S tilted to 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°. The results indicated that: in condition 1, the error of depth-discrimination at 0° position was significantly less than that at the other four positions, however, the differences among the errors at these four positions were not significant statistically; in condition 2, errors increased with the amount of tilt of the test object; in condition 3, the greatest error took place at 90°. No significant difference was found between the errors at the similar positions (45°, 90°) in the latter two conditions. The results of these experiments do not seem to be consistent with the sensory-tonic field theory.
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