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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 9 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF PICTORIAL MATERIAL AND WRITING IN LEARNING CHARACTERS
    LIU YING-TSANG
    . 1965, 9 (03): 16-23.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 155 )
    The principal contradiction in learning characters in first grade primary school children is the connection of sound, form and meaning. The principal aspect of the contradiction is the form of characters. The more effective method for solving the contradiction is the method by which the children learn writing in connection with reading and explanation of the meaning of characters.
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    THE EFFECTS OF SILENT READING, RECITAL READING WITH AND WITHOUT EXPRESSIONS ON CHILDREN'S MEMORIZATION ON POETRY
    HU YI-PEN, YUEH HSIAO-HUNG
    . 1965, 9 (03): 24-29.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 164 )
    Experiments were carried out for testing the effects of and the differences between silent reading, recital reading with and without expression in memorizing poetry in primary school children. The results indicated:1. Recital reading and recital reading with expression are more effective for memorizing poetry than silent reading.2. There is a slight difference in the results of recital reading and recital reading with expression in favour of the latter.3. In primary school children, using any kind of reading, those at a higher level of reading ability have good results in their memorizing. The raising up of the level of recital reading in children is, therefore, an important condition for increasing the efficiency of poetry memorization.
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    THE RELATIVE FREQUENCIES OF THE VARIOUS STROKETYPES OF THE CHINESE IDEOGRAMS
    TSENG HSING-CHU, CHANG L-HSIANG, CHEN CHAO-KUAN
    . 1965, 9 (03): 30-32.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 241 )
    The strokes of Chinese ideograms classified into 26 types in terms of shape and their relative frequencies on newspaper materials were counted. The most frequent stroke-type (horizontal stroke) occurred 31% of the time, and the four most frequent stroke-types totaled 63%. The ratio of the occurrences of the most and least frequent stroke-types is 200 to 1. It is noted that the probabilities of the occurrences of the various stroke-types are more unequal than those of the English letters.
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    ON THE PROCESSES OF MASTERY OF TYPICAL VERBAL ARITHMATICAL PROBLEMS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN
    CHEN PEI-LIN, MAO Y-YEN
    . 1965, 9 (03): 33-40.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 64 )
    The aim of the research was to analyse the processes of different stages in the understanding and mastery of typical verbal arithmetical problems in primary school children. The indices used were the amounts of correct classifying, solving and composing typical problems. Experiments were carried out individually on 30 children of the grade Ⅴ. The results were as follows: 1. There were positive correlations among the achievements in classifying, solving and composing problems; 2. Six levels of understanding and mastery could be identified which might be used as a scale to test the children's mastery of verbal problems.
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    ANALYSIS OF MISTAKES MADE IN LEARNING RESOLUTION OF FACTORS BY FIRST GRADE JUNIOR MIDDLE SCHOOL PUPILS
    CHOU HWAI-SHUI
    . 1965, 9 (03): 41-47.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 71 )
    In first grade junior middle school pupils the comprehension of the concept of factoring is more difficult than the differentiation between various problems of factoring. Some causes of mistakes usually made in factoring were revealed: 1) Due to configuration of letters and the order of terms; 2) Due to incomplete comprehension of the law of signs; 3) Due to incomplete comprehension of basic formulas.
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    EFFECT OF DIM-BRIGHT RATIO ON THE DISCRIMINATION OF SUCCESSIVE FLASH SIGNALS
    LI CHIA-CHIH, CHIAO SHU-LAN
    . 1965, 9 (03): 48-58.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    The flash light composed of alternative bright and dim phases was used in simple and choice reaction time experiments to investigate the effect of dim-bright ratio (DBR) on signal discrimination. Experimental results showed that the dim phase of the flash light was a noise factor for the discrimination, but with DBR under 0.40 this effect was negligible, while above 0.70 its influence increased abruptly.With small DBR (0.17), simple reaction time to signals within the frequency range of 40 c/min to 420 c/min remained almost unchanged. When DBR reached 0.83, reaction time to both the lower and higher frequencies was remarkably longer than that to the middle frequencies (100—300 c/min). This was due to the fact that at greater DBR the higher frequencies tended to give rise to flicker fusion, whereas at lower frequencies the subjects needed more stimulus repetitions (i.e. bright and dim alternations) to make correct discriminations.
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    THE POSITION OF SEATS AND VISUAL EFFECT IN GYMNASIUMS
    HSIEH KUANG-CHAO, HS CHIANG-SHENG, CHIN CHIEN TAN CHIH-MIN
    . 1965, 9 (03): 59-65.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
    Observers taking different seat positions were asked to make judgments of distance between two stimuli. The results were then considered in reference to the retinal image transformations of the field caused by the angular displacement of the observers. It was found that as the seat position varied from 0° to 90° along an arc from the short axis of the field to its long axis, the perceived distance decreased first slowly, then quickly, and finally slowed down again. As great discrepancy existed between the perceptual effect and the changes in retinal projection, which underwent gradual transformations, it was stressed that the visual perceptual effect must be considered as one of the basis in the planning of seat positions in gymnasiums.
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    OBSERVATION DISTANCE AND LENGTH TRAVERSED BY STIMULUS AS VARIABLES IN CONSTANCY OF VISUAL MOVEMENT
    CHING CHI-CHENG, LIU WEN-MING
    . 1965, 9 (03): 66-76.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 232 )
    Two moving light spots, the standard placed at a fixed distance of 1.5 m from the observer, the comparison varied from 1.5 m to 6 m along an alley, with the length traversed by the stimulus as another variable, were matched for equal perceived velocities both under direct observation and by displaying them on a television screen. The following results were obtained:1. When only one variable was changed, either observation distance or length traversed by the stimulus, the equated physical speed had to be only slightly increased as either one variable was increased. Consequently, under this condition, a constancy of perceived movement was maintained.2. When the two variables in question were changed simultaneously, the constancy phenomenon was greatly hampered and Ss matched the comparison speed in the direction of equal angular velocity with the standard.3. As an instance of the above result, by presenting the comparison speed to traverse the same visual angle at various distances from the eyes, the perceived speed fell between the constancy value and the physically predicted angular velocity, which followed a nearly linear relationship.4. An interchangable relationship was shown between a change in the length traversed by the stimulus under the same observation distance, on the one hand, and a change in the observation distance with the same traversed length, on the other hand. Similar results could be effected through a change in one variable in the place of the other.5. When the movements were displayed on a television screen, i.e., with the reduction of cues of distance, constancy of visual movement broke down completely, the perceived comparison speed coincided approximately with the physically predicted angular velocity.
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    COLOR AND FORM PREFERENCES
    CHEN LI, WANG AN-SHENG
    . 1965, 9 (03): 83-87.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 187 )
    A total of 537 pre-school children and university students were studied. No developmental trend was observed among the various age groups of children in either color or form preferences. Pre-school children were as a rule more uniform in their rankings of color preferences, the order being red, blue, green and yellow. University students showed less uniformity in their rankings of color preferences, though their average preference order was the same as that of the children. The judgments of children with regard to different forms were less uniform than those of the students. Nevertheless circle was preferred by all age groups, including the students, and there was a tendency for adults to prefer a rectangle of the so-called golden section, while children preferred squares. No sex difference was observed among children for either color or form preferences, though adults did show some sex difference in color preference. Children were observed during the experiment to form more concrete images with different forms, while there was no such tendency with regard to colors. It was suggested that adults might form different associations for particular colors. Thus the different tendencies in their preferences for color and form in children and adults were accounted for.
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