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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 8 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    CONVERGENCE,INTEROCULAR DISTANCE AND PERCEPTION OF DISTANCE
    FANG YUN-CHIU
    . 1964, 8 (03): 3-10.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    The relationship between convergence and distance judgment, with interocular distance as a variable, was experimentally studied. 32 persons with interocular distances ranging from 56 mm to 70mm served as observers. Two conditions were used: (1) Convergence was controlled by means of polaroids, so as to produce a fuscd image artificially at different distances, while the physical distance of the stimuli remained constant; (2) Convergence varied in a natural manner with the physical distances of the stimuli.The results showed:(1) Convergence plays an important role in distance perception. In condition I) distance judgtnents fall very near to the calculated values of the convergence distances. In condition 2) distance can be perceived quite accurately by using convergence cues within a certain distance range.(2) Under our experimental conditions, convergence serves as a cue for distance as far as 35—45 metres, which is much greater than the commonly held opinion of 20 metres.(3) Observers with different interocular distances showed difference in the accuracy of distance judgments. The greater the interocular distance the more accurate is the judgment of distance.
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    A STUDY ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN VISUAL AND KINESTHETIC LOCALIZATIONS
    LIN CHUNG-HSIEN
    . 1964, 8 (03): 11-22.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 69 )
    In the experiment on visual vs. visual-kinesthetic localization, Ss saw a spot and then tried to locate it with vision and kinaesthesis, it was found that the localization was quite accurate. When Ss located the spot with monocular vision or through a mirror in a slower speed, there was no difficulty, but with a faster speed, the errors increased.In the experiment on kinesthetic vs. kinesthetic-visual localization, Ss saw and touched the spot with the right band and then located it with vision and kinaesthesis (also with the right hand), it was quite accurate. When Ss touched the spot and then located it with kinaesthesis alone, the errors slightly increased. The least accurate was when Ss saw and touched the spot and then located it by kinaesthesis alone.When Ss touched a spot blindfolded with his right hand and then located it with the left hand and vice versa, or when Ss located a light spot with vision and kinaesthesis in a darkroom, the errors of localization increased greatly. The most difficult localization was when Ss saw a spot and then located it with kinaesthesis or touched a spot (with the right hand) and then located it with vision, the errors under both conditions increased very greatly.There was a significant reduction of error on visual-kinesthetic localization with practice. Most Ss showed a tendency to make errors underneath and to the left of the target in localization.
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    AGE DIFFERENCES IN MLLER-LYER ILLUSION
    SUN SHIH-LUH
    . 1964, 8 (03): 23-28.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 98 )
    Measurements in Müller-Lyer illusion were taken in adults as well as subjects ranging ,sexdifferencefrom 6 to 18 years of age. The results indicated that: (1) The illusion shows no sex difference, but changes with different age levels, it decreases from 6—16 years of age; (2) Involvement of the thought process decreases the illusion; (3) Adults with different professional experiences showed some differences in the illusion.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON CHILDREN'S CONCEPTIONS OF LEFT AND RIGHT
    CHU CHIH-HSIEN, CHEN KUO-MEI, WU FENG-KANG
    . 1964, 8 (03): 29-36.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 86 )
    The present study is a systematic repetition of the experiments performed by J. Piaget and D. Elkind. The findings of this study were foundamentally the same as the two previous experiments, since there was no more than a year's discrepancy in the results of the age levels at which the tests were passed, and the stages of development were also almost the same. Despite such similarities, the authors' interpretation of the results was quite different.
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    MASTERY OF REVERSE OPERATION AND FLEXIBILITY OF THINKING IN ARITHMETIC IN SCHOOL CHILDREN
    L(?) CHING, WANG WEN-CH(?)N, CHENG Y(?)E-TAN
    . 1964, 8 (03): 37-47.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    Two instruction methods were used in teaching children of the first and second grades to solve verbal arithmetical problems. The experimental group was instructed with the "contrast method" (the reverse operation of a problem was taught), while the control group with the "successive method" (only one-way operation of a problem was taught). One year of systematic observation indicated that the former method is better than the latter, in that it not only promotes the ability to solve verbal arithmetical problems, but also develops the flexibility of thinking. These experiments revealed two types of difficulties in solving verbal problems. Firstly, the children took only the superficial features and grasped only one or two words in question in the attempt to solve the problems; secondly, they failed to solve the problem because of their limited knowledge and little experience of applying the knowledge in new situations. These difficulties could be overcome by the contrast method of instruction and by increasing the knowledge of the children.
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    STUDIES ON THE ABILITY OF MORAL JUDGEMENT IN ADOLESCENTS
    HSIEH CHIEN-CHIU
    . 1964, 8 (03): 58-65.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 138 )
    This study is to test the assumption that the ability of moral judgement of adoles cents is closely related to their intellectual levels. The subjects were required to make judgement of the moral behavior of characters described in a written text. Considerable number of adolescents have shown the ability to make judgement based on the nature of the moral deed, they are able to analyse the concrete situations and to discriminate between matters of primary importance and matters of secondary importance. Marked individual differences in moral judgement were also noticed.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABILITY TO COMPARE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
    WEI CH(?)NG, HWANG HSIO-YING, SUNG CHING-YAO, WANG CH'I-FEN
    . 1964, 8 (03): 74-80.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 96 )
    The results of an experimental study indicated that the development of the ability to compare in primary school children is influenced by the nature of the objects compared and the methods of comparison. It is not under any condition by comparing any object that one can easily find the dissimilarities. The experiment also states that the comparing ability of primary school children grows gradually in accordance with age and grade. Different stages of age have different levels of development.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF MENTAL ACTIVITY (MENTAL CALCULATION) ON EEG IN SUBJECTS OF DIFFERENT AGES
    LIU SHIH-YIH, WU CHIN-EH, SUN SHIH-LUH, KO CHIH-Y(?)N, LIU YUNG-TSAI
    . 1964, 8 (03): 81-89.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 105 )
    1. The influence of mental activity on EEG was investigated on 359 subjects, 164 males and 195 females ranging from 4—86 years of age, EEGs were recorded on an 16-channel Ediswan-Ⅲ EEG machine. Subjects were requested to mantain a relaxed position with eyes closed in a dark room. After familiarization with the routine some arithmetic problems were given at 5—10 min. intervals. Results showed that during mental activity a variaty of patterns of EEG alterations was existed and a-blocking was not the only concomitant of mental calculation.2. Subjects ranging in ages between 4—86 years showed different EEG alterations during mental activity. Frequently no EEG modification was found between 4—7 years of age, more and more EEG modifications were noted with the increase of age. θ-waves were more frequently observed between 8—17 years of age and diffusely α-blocking over the whole cortex was most marked in Ss between 18—60 years of age.3. EEG alterations, associated with mental calculation, were localized mainly in the temporal (mostly the left temporal) and frontal regions in Ss of different ages.
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    α-BLOCKING AND MENTAL ACTIVITY (MENTAL CALCULATION)
    LIU SHIH-YIH, Wu CHIN-EH, WAN CHWAN-WEN
    . 1964, 8 (03): 90-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 129 )
    1. An experiment was performed to investigate the correlation between α-blocking and mental activity (mental calculation) with the automatic analysing techniques etc. 166 subjects, 49 males and 117 females of 6 to 40 years of ages, were employed in the study. Subjects were specially selected, whose resting EEG's revealed a percent time α orθ(α) of more than 80. Results showed that there was a negative correlation between occipital α-blocking and mental activity.2. Automatic analysing techniques showed that during mental activity only 20% of the subjects were found to give diffusely α-blocking over the whole cortex and no subject was found to give only occipital α-blocking.3. Information processing of the occipital α-waves (driving response elicited by "threshold" photic stimulation) was not disturbed by mental calculation in 94.4% of the cases.4. Kappa waves of 6—8 c/sec, were observed in the frontal region during mental activity. These waves were not related to α-waves and eye-flutter movements.
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    ВЛИЯНИЕ ВНИМАНИЯ НА СОСТОЯНИЕ СОСУДОВ НОЖИ
    Ли Чао-и, Лю Юан-лян, Ван Щу-джу
    . 1964, 8 (03): 98-102.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 88 )
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