ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 1996, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (03): 238-244.

• • 上一篇    下一篇

阅读理解中的预期推理

崔耀;陈永明   

  1. 中国科学院心理研究所!北京100012,中国科学院心理研究所!北京100012
  • 出版日期:1996-09-25 发布日期:1996-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 崔耀

PREDICTIVE INFERENCE IN READING

Cui Yao,Chen Yongming (Institute of Psychology, CAS)   

  • Online:1996-09-25 Published:1996-09-25

摘要: 从工作记忆能力的个体差异的角度,探讨阅读描述日常生活事件的段落时预期推理过程的资源分配特点,及其与阅读焦点转移的关系。结果表明,(1)预期推理可以维持较长时间。(2)工作记忆能力强的被试进行预期推理的范围较广;而工作记忆能力较弱的被试推理范围较小。(3)工作记忆能力较弱者对每一个项目的激活量较大。(4)对于非常熟悉的事件,预期推理不受焦点转移的影响。

关键词: 预期推理, 工作记忆, 阅读焦点

Abstract: Predictive inference has been studied by many researchers, yet still many problems exist. Two factors that may influence the process of predictive inference were examined. The first was reading spans of the subjects. SentenceWord method has been used to identify the reader's reading span into three grades-high, middle and low reading span. The second factor was changes of reading focus on different events described in the same paragraph. This factor has three levels, same event, different event, and environment description. Naming time was measured under different conditions when the subjects read Chinese paragraphs. Each paragraph contained of four sentences. The results indicated that naming times of the readers with different reading spans were significantly different. The higher the reading span, the shorter the naming time. Those readers who had higher reading spans were more sensitive to the context. They seemed to obtain less predictive amount for each item in their long term memory, but spread predicting effects to more items. It was likely that predictive inference could maintain even when current reading focus had moved to another event. From these results, it was suggested that predictive inference may exist longer than what had been considered in the past. A dynamic process for allocating cognitive resources was proposed.

Key words: Predictive inference, Working memory, Reading focus