ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (6): 637-646.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00637

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

孤独症青少年的情绪韵律注意偏向缺陷:低效率的知觉模式*

胡金生1(), 李骋诗1, 王琦1, 李松泽1, 李涛涛1, 刘淑清2   

  1. 1 辽宁师范大学心理学院, 大连 116029
    2 大连医科大学基础医学院, 大连 116044
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-09 出版日期:2018-06-01 发布日期:2018-04-28
  • 通讯作者: 胡金生 E-mail:hu_jinsheng@126.com
  • 作者简介:胡金生为共同第一作者|李骋诗为共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    辽宁特聘教授基金、辽宁省社会科学基金项目资助(L17DSH001)

The deficiency of attention bias to emotional prosody in the teenagers with autism spectrum disorders: A perceptual mode of low efficiency

HU Jinsheng1(), LI Chengshi1, WANG Qi1, LI Songze1, LI Taotao1, LIU Shuqing2   

  1. 1 School of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, China
    2 College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, China
  • Received:2017-01-09 Online:2018-06-01 Published:2018-04-28
  • Contact: HU Jinsheng E-mail:hu_jinsheng@126.com

摘要:

情绪注意偏向是指与中性刺激相比, 情绪刺激会引起个体的优先加工。为了探讨ASD青少年听觉通道的情绪注意偏向是否存在缺陷, 并进一步考察目标任务的知觉负载水平是否影响ASD青少年情绪韵律的注意偏向, 研究先后采用oddball范式、双任务范式呈现中性、快乐和愤怒韵律。实验1结果发现, ASD被试在不同情绪韵律类别下的反应时均长于TD被试。实验2结果发现, 在提供注意指示条件下, 即使在高知觉负载水平上, ASD被试的情绪韵律检测能力及错误率也与普通被试相似, 但对于情绪韵律的反应时与中性韵律无差异。结果表明, 知觉负载对ASD青少年情绪韵律注意偏向的影响是有限度的, 该群体听觉通道的情绪注意偏向存在缺陷, 主要表现为对情绪韵律知觉效率的相对低下。

关键词: 孤独症谱系障碍, 青少年, 情绪韵律, 注意偏向, 知觉负载

Abstract:

Emotional attention bias refers that emotional stimuli usually get priority of attention over the neutral stimuli, which has been frequently replicated in normal participants. However, previous studies reported that teenagers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had atypical attention patterns of processing emotional faces and pictures, that is, their first attention was located at the neutral stimuli instead of the emotional stimuli. According to the perceptual load theory, some studies demonstrated the deficiency of attention bias to emotions in the teenagers with ASD was due to the perceptual load of the main task was too high for them, so that they can’t process the emotion. Till now, little has been known about the ASD teenagers’ attention in processing auditory emotional stimuli, although emotional expression also actually depends on the changes of acoustic cues in the speech prosody. To testify the generality of attention bias to cross-model emotions in the teenagers with ASD, we extended the experimental materials to emotional prosody. In present study, 14 teenagers with ASD and 17 typical developing (TD) people were recruited in two experiments. The participants were required to complete a main task while the emotional prosody voices were presented as the deviated task-irrelevant stimuli. In Experiment 1, the participants were instructed to ignore sounds and to classify the pictures. In Experiment 2, we adopted a dual-task paradigm, which required participants to respond to the target letters first and then to point whether they hear the novel emotional prosody. And in experiment 2, we also manipulated the level of perceptual load through changing the similarity between the letters in virtual round.

Results showed that: (1) Reaction time of ASD subjects were longer than TD subjects under any different emotions rhyme categories. (2) Whether in high or low perceptual load, reaction times and error rates of the main task as well as accuracy of emotional prosody detection task between two groups of participants have no significant differences. In providing notice indicating conditions, even in a high perceptual load level, ASD subjects of emotional rhythm detection capability and error rates are similar to TD subjects, but for emotional rhythm react time with neutral rhythm no difference. These findings revealed that ASD have the similar attention processing level with TD in attention conditions.

The results of two studies strongly suggested that the attention bias to emotional prosody was deficient in the teenagers with ASD, which was consistent with the results from visual channels and the teenagers with ASD have defect on emotional attention bias in auditory channel, main showed low perception efficiency on emotional rhythm perception.

Key words: autism spectrum disorders, teenagers, attention bias, perceptual load

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