ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理科学进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 45-55.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00045

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇

视觉注意捕获的快速脱离假说与信号抑制假说

张帆1, 陈艾睿2, 董波2, 王爱君1(), 张明1,2()   

  1. 1苏州大学心理学系, 心理与行为科学研究中心, 苏州 215123
    2苏州科技大学心理学系, 苏州 215009
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-06 出版日期:2021-01-15 发布日期:2020-11-23
  • 通讯作者: 王爱君,张明 E-mail:ajwang@suda.edu.cn;psyzm@suda.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金项目(31871092);国家自然科学基金项目(31700939);教育部人文社会科学研究项目(20YJC190002)

Rapid disengagement hypothesis and signal suppression hypothesis of visual attentional capture

ZHANG Fan1, CHEN Airui2, DONG Bo2, WANG Aijun1(), ZHANG Ming1,2()   

  1. 1Department of Psychology, Soochow University; Research Center for Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Suzhou 215123, China
    2Department of Psychology, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China
  • Received:2020-04-06 Online:2021-01-15 Published:2020-11-23
  • Contact: WANG Aijun,ZHANG Ming E-mail:ajwang@suda.edu.cn;psyzm@suda.edu.cn

摘要:

快速脱离假说和信号抑制假说都是将传统的自下而上捕获和自上而下控制结合起来的混合模式假说。快速脱离假说认为突显干扰物总能在第一时间自下而上地捕获注意, 当突显干扰物与任务要求不符时, 注意会迅速脱离该位置。信号抑制假说认为突显干扰物都会产生“注意我”的信号, 当突显干扰物与任务要求不符时, 该信号会被自上而下地抑制以阻止注意捕获发生。前者相关的研究多采用空间线索提示范式和眼动脱离范式, 实验中被试采取独子探测策略, 而后者相关的研究多采用额外单例范式的变式, 实验中被试采取特征探测策略。未来研究应采用不同的刺激类型和实验方法进一步为两个假说提供证据支持, 同时要关注奖赏、训练等因素对“捕获-脱离”和“信号-抑制”的影响。

关键词: 视觉注意捕获, 快速脱离假说, 信号抑制假说

Abstract:

In the traditional theory of visual attentional capture, the stimulus-driven theory and goal-driven theory were argued for nearly 20 years. Later, two new hybrid models were proposed, which combined bottom-up capture and top-down control settings, called the rapid disengagement hypothesis and the signal suppression hypothesis. The main content of the rapid disengagement hypothesis is that a salient distractor can always capture attention in a bottom-up manner, but attention is immediately disengaged when the distractor does not contain target’s defining attribute. Signal suppression hypothesis posits that a salient distractor can automatically produce a bottom-up “attend-to-me” signal, but this signal can be suppressed via top-down control processes so that it does not actually capture attention. The empirical evidence of the rapid disengagement hypothesis indicated that the spatial-cuing paradigm and oculomotor disengagement paradigm were most often adopted, and participants took the singleton search strategy. The empirical evidence of the signal suppression hypothesis indicated that the additional singleton paradigm was most often adopted, and participants were forced to take the feature search strategy. In the future, more studies adopting different stimuli and experimental methods are needed to support those two hybrid models. The effects of reward and training on “attentional capture-disengagement” and “signal-suppression” should also be explored in future research.

Key words: visual attentional capture, rapid disengagement hypothesis, signal suppression hypothesis

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