ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (05): 433-443.

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  1. 山东师范大学心理学院,济南 250014
  • 收稿日期:2008-12-25 修回日期:1900-01-01 发布日期:2009-05-30 出版日期:2009-05-30
  • 通讯作者: 张文新

Physical and Relational Victimization, and Children’s Emotional Adjustment in Middle Childhood

ZHANG Wen-Xin;CHEN Liang;JI Lin-Qin;ZHANG Ling-Ling;CHEN Guang-Hui;Wang Shu-Qiong   

  1. Department of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China
  • Received:2008-12-25 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-05-30 Published:2009-05-30
  • Contact: ZHANG Wen-Xin

摘要: 采用整群抽样法选取2603名小学儿童(平均年龄9.05 ± 0.53岁)作为被试,考察童年中期同伴侵害现象的基本特点,以及同伴侵害与情绪适应(孤独感、社交焦虑和抑郁)的关系。结果发现:(1)在性别差异方面,男生的身体侵害与关系侵害水平均显著高于女生,与身体侵害相比,关系侵害的性别差异程度较小。在同伴侵害的类型特点方面,儿童遭受身体侵害的水平显著高于关系侵害。(2)身体侵害、关系侵害与儿童的各情绪适应指标显著正相关,身体侵害和关系侵害能同时预测儿童的情绪适应不良;并且与身体侵害相比,关系侵害对情绪适应的影响更大。(3)身体侵害与社交焦虑的关系表现出性别差异,即身体侵害能预测女生的社交焦虑,而对男生的社交焦虑不存在预测作用;但同伴侵害与孤独感、抑郁的关系不受性别的调节。总体而言,有同伴侵害经历的男生和女生具有相似的情绪适应问题。

关键词: 童年中期, 同伴侵害, 身体侵害, 关系侵害, 情绪适应

Abstract: Peer victimization refers to children’s experience of being a target of physical, verbal or relational aggressive behavior from peers. Research indicates that peer victimization is a phenomenon of high prevalence during childhood and adolescence, and can lead to both concurrent and prospective maladjustment on the part of victim. Although in recent years there has been an increasing interest in the research on children’s peer victimization, most of these studies have focused on physical form of victimization and were conducted with children in Western cultures. Research into victimization among children in Chinese schools has been rare. The present study investigated the characteristics of physical and relational peer victimization and their associations with children’s emotional adjustment among Chinese children during middle childhood.
The participants of this study were 2603 children in their middle childhood from 51 classrooms in 14 schools (mean age = 9.05±0.53 years) in Jinan, capital city of Shandong Province in mid-eastern China, with approximately equal number of boys (51.98%) and girls (48.2%). The Chinese version of the Multi-dimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS, Mynard & Joseph, 2000) was used to tap children’s’ experience of peer victimization. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted and indicated that the Chinese version of MPVS had good structural validity of. Measures of children’s emotional adjustment included Children’s Loneliness Scale (Asher, Hymel & Renshaw, 1984), Social Anxiety Scale for Children (La Greca, 1988) and Children’s Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1992). The participants responded to all the measures in a manner through self-report.
Children reported experiencing more physical than relational forms of victimization. Inconsistent with the pattern of gender differences that has been reported in studies on children in Western cultures, boys in Chinese schools reported more victimization of both relational and physical forms than did girls. Both physical and relational victimization had a negative effect on children’s emotional adjustment, but the negative effect of relational victimization was greater than that of physical victimization. Children’s reporting of physical victimization predicted social anxiety only for girls, while relational victimization contributed to children’s social anxiety for both male and female. Nonetheless, gender didn’t moderate the relationship between either form of victimization and loneliness as well as depression. Overall, the associations between peer victimization and children’s emotional adjustment did not vary as a function of children’s gender.
The findings of this study suggest that the patterns of gender differences in relational victimization vary with cultures, though that of physical victimization remains consistent. To the extent that relational victimization has a unique negative effect on children’s emotional adjustment, future research should pay more attention to this form of victimization.

Key words: middle childhood, peer victimization, physical victimization, relational victimization, emotional adjustment