ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (9): 1355-1377.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01355

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  1. (1中国浦东干部学院领导研究院, 上海 201204) (2华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院, 上海 200062) (3北京大学心理学系, 北京 100871)
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-05 出版日期:2014-09-25 发布日期:2014-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 任真, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:


Structure Models of Leader-Member Relationship (LMR) from the Perspectives of Cultural Differences between China and the West

REN Zhen1; YANG Anbo2; WANG Dengfeng3; LIN Ying1   

  1. (1 School of Leadership, China Executive Leadership Academy Pudong, Shanghai 201204, China) (2 School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China) (3 Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China)
  • Received:2013-04-05 Published:2014-09-25 Online:2014-09-25
  • Contact: REN Zhen, E-mail:


从中西方文化差异视角, 采用本土化研究的思路, 构建并检验中国文化下领导?部属关系的结构模型。研究1采用质性研究方法, 通过19人的访谈、284人的开放式问卷调查和1部文学著作的分析等3种途径, 经3轮条目分类, 建立了领导视角和部属视角各7个维度的领导?部属关系结构模型。研究2选取391人的领导样本和133人的领导?部属匹配样本, 通过探索性和验证性因素分析, 发现领导?部属关系是一个双视角、二阶四因素的结构。双视角是指领导视角和部属视角, 二阶因素是指领导?部属的积极关系和消极关系, 4个因素分别为关心支持、控制划派、忠诚贡献、抵触反对。与西方LMX-7量表相比, 本土化的领导?部属关系量表(LMR量表)在预测工作中的心理健康指标方面具有一定优势。该模型将西方研究对领导?部属“交换”的关注转换到对“关系”的关注上, 把仅对积极关系的关注扩展到对消极关系的关注上, 并发现了领导视角和部属视角各有不同的结构。

关键词: 领导?部属关系, 领导?部属交换(LMX), 关系(Guanxi), 心理健康, 本土化


Leader-member relationship is a critical issue in Chinese organizations. Although the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership in the West has developed over 40 years, the concept and the structure of LMX are still controversial and seldom analyzed from the perspectives of cultural differences. Meanwhile, in China, indigenized studies about supervisor-subordinate guanxi (SSG) (or called leader-member guanxi, LMG) are often limited in non-work related social exchanges and seldom examine supervisor-subordinate work relationships. As a result, this research explored and validated the structure of Chinese indigenized leader-member relationship (LMR) from the perspectives of cultural differences between China and the West. Two empirical studies were presented in this dissertation: The first one was a qualitative study, in which comprehensive items about leader-member relationship were formed by three methods. These methods included interviews of 19 leaders, an open-ended questionnaire investigation of 284 subjects, and analysis of a literature about office politics. A primary structure model of LMR was therefore achieved by categorizing these items through three times, which contained seven dimensions from the perspectives of leaders and members respectively. In the second study, 391 leaders and 133 leader-member dyads completed a primary LMR scale based on the first study. Then a new 56-item scale and a dual-perspective model with two second-order factors and four first-order factors of indigenized LMR were generated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In this model, the dual perspectives meant both leaders and members’ perspectives, the two second-order factors referred to both positive and negative leader-member relationships, and the four first-order factors referred to consideration and support, control and faction, loyalty and contribution, conflict and opposition. These four factors of LMR were found to be able to significantly predict work outcomes (leaders’ task performance, members’ organizational citizenship behaviors, turnover intentions and affective commitment) and mental health indicators (burnout, mental well-being and work satisfaction). Moreover, the LMR scale was proved to have acceptable reliability and validity and predicted the indicators of mental health better than LMX-7. To conclude, with the characteristics of Chinese culture, the dual-perspective four-dimentional model of LMR made a break-through in the Western LMX theory and the Chinese SSG (LMG) models. Its theoretical contributions were as follows: (1) It transferred the research focus from LMX to LMR; (2) It extended the research scale from positive relationships to both positive and negative relationships; (3) Different to the Western studies in which leaders and members shared one LMX structure, it was found that different structures existed from the perspectives of leaders and members respectively; (4) It offered a framework of four factors of LMR with the characteristics of Chinese culture. Therefore, it is fair to say that the structure model of LMR and the LMR scale would provide theoretical evidence and a measure for the future research.

Key words: Leader-Member Relationship (LMR), Leader-Member Exchange (LMX), Guanxi, mental health, indigenization