ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (2): 182-198.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00182

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国国民心理健康素养的现状与特点

江光荣1, 李丹阳1, 任志洪1(), 闫玉朋1, 伍新春2, 朱旭1, 于丽霞3, 夏勉1, 李凤兰4, 韦辉1,5, 张衍1,6, 赵春晓1, 张琳1   

  1. 1华中师范大学心理学院, 青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室
    2北京师范大学心理学部, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学), 北京 100875
    3华中师范大学心理健康教育中心, 武汉 430079
    4华中农业大学马克思主义学院, 武汉 430070
    5江汉大学教育学院, 武汉 430056
    6中国社会科学院社会学研究所, 北京 100732
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-21 出版日期:2021-02-25 发布日期:2020-12-29
  • 通讯作者: 任志洪 E-mail:ren@ccnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金重大招标项目(16ZDA232)

The status quo and characteristics of Chinese mental health literacy

JIANG Guangrong1, LI Danyang1, REN Zhihong1(), YAN Yupeng1, WU Xinchun2, ZHU Xu1, YU Lixia3, XIA Mian1, LI Fenglan4, WEI Hui1,5, ZHANG Yan1,6, ZHAO Chunxiao1, ZHANG Lin1   

  1. 1School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430079, China
    2Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University); Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3Mental Health Education Center, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
    4College of Marxism, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    5Department of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China
    6Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, China
  • Received:2020-05-21 Online:2021-02-25 Published:2020-12-29
  • Contact: REN Zhihong E-mail:ren@ccnu.edu.cn

摘要:

本研究以系统的全国抽样调查方式, 了解我国国民心理健康素养现状。结果显示, 我国成年公众的心理健康素养总体处于中偏低水平; 其发展水平在地域、人口学分布上比较均衡; 在结构上, 公众心理健康素养的发展表现出心理健康维护和促进的素养高于心理疾病应对的素养, 自助的素养高于助人的素养两个特点。调查还发现, 个体心理健康素养中, 知识观念部分个体差异较大, 态度和习惯部分个体差异较小; 在心理健康素养的社会性影响因素方面, 社会经济地位是所考察变量中效应最大的因素, 且其对素养的知识观念方面影响较大, 对素养的态度习惯方面影响较小。调查结果提示, 要充分认识心理健康素养提升任务的艰巨性; 在实践策略上, 宜以提升心理疾病应对的素养作为当前的工作重点和突破口。

关键词: 心理健康素养, 现状调查, 群体差异

Abstract:

Based on a new conceptual frame of mental health literacy (MHL), which refers to two structural dimensions including “coping with mental illness-mental health promotion” and “self-others” and three aspects including knowledge, attitude, and behavior tendency, a systematic nationwide sampling survey was conducted for the purpose of understanding the mental health literacy profile of the Chinese. This study further explored the influences of four group variables (geographical and gross domestic product (GDP) distribution, basic demographic variables, socio-economic status, and mental health background) on mental health literacy. Another aim of this study was to provide some strategies for improving mental health literacy more effectively.

The Chinese Mental Health Literacy Questionnaire and Basic Background Information Questionnaire were used to assess the mental health literacy levels of the Chinese and their influencing factors. The Chinese Mental Health Literacy Questionnaire contains six sub-scales (knowledge and concepts related to mental health, knowledge and concepts related to mental illness, attitudes and behavior tendency to maintain and promote one’s mental health, attitudes and behavior tendency to cope with one's mental illness, attitudes and behavior tendency to maintain and promote the mental health of others, and attitudes and behavior tendency to cope with the mental illness of others). The questionnaires were administered to 8866 Chinese adults in nine cities (Beijing, Wuhan, Chengdu, Lishui, Kaifeng, Guilin, Zhangye, Baoding, and Linfen), which covered the well-developed, developing, and less-developed regions in China.

With a balanced development considering geographical and GDP distribution, the results indicated that the mental health literacy levels among adults in different cities were low to moderate. Their influences on mental health literacy were small but significant with respect to geographical distribution, gender, age, familiarity with professional mental health service, and the frequency of contact with psychiatric patients. Regarding the structure of mental health literacy, the results of the development of national mental health literacy demonstrated that mental health maintenance and promotion literacy was better than mental illness coping literacy, and self-help literacy was better than helping others literacy. The survey found that the knowledge had relatively high individual differences, whereas attitudes and behaviors had relatively low individual differences concerning the contents of the mental health literacy. In addition, among the social influencing factors of mental health literacy this research tested, the socio-economic status was the most effective one, which showed large effect size in the knowledge and small to medium effect size in the attitudes and behavior tendency.

These findings implicate that (1) improving mental health literacy is an arduous task; (2) improving the literacy of coping with mental illness should be the focus and breakthrough point of the current practice of mental health literacy promotion; (3) socio-ecological perspective should be adopted when developing a mental health literacy promotion policy; and (4) the mechanism of the attitude and behavior tendency change needs to be explored and clarified.

Key words: mental health literacy, prevalence survey, group difference

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