ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (10): 1309-1317.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.01309

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (1西南大学心理学部认知与人格教育部重点实验室, 重庆 400715) (2辽宁师范大学心理发展与教育研究中心, 大连 116029)
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-29 发布日期:2012-10-23 出版日期:2012-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 陈雪梅;李红
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(30900408)、中央高校基本科研业务经费专项资金(SWU1209410)、西南大学国家重点学科基础心理学 211工程项目(NSKD11032)

The Influence of Body Form and Social Environment on the SNARC Effect: Based on the Embodied Cognition

ZHANG Li;CHEN Xue-Mei;WANG Qi;LI Hong   

  1. ( 1Faculty of Psychology, Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (Ministry of Education), Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China) (2 Research Center of Psychological Development and Education, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China)
  • Received:2011-07-29 Online:2012-10-23 Published:2012-10-25
  • Contact: CHEN Xue-Mei;LI Hong

摘要: 目前SNARC效应在认知心理学领域得到了广泛研究, 然而较少有研究考察身体形式和社会环境对SNARC效应的影响。研究以127名在校大学生为被试, 使用奇偶判断任务、Go/No-go任务以及合作情境下的Go/No-go任务依次展开了三个研究, 拟揭示身体形式和社会环境对SNARC效应的影响。实验一要求被试双手完成奇偶判断任务, 结果出现了经典的SNARC效应。实验二要求被试完成Go/No-go任务, 并让被试单手(左手或右手)对奇数或偶数进行反应, 结果SNARC效应没有出现, 这表明认知主体的身体形式对SNARC效应产生了影响。实验三要求被试合作完成Go/No-go任务, 该实验按照被试所坐的位置(左边和右边)和反应手(左手和右手), 设计了四个条件, 结果只有身体位置和反应手完全一致时出现了SNARC效应。以上结果一方面表明了具身认知观的合理性, 另外一方面扩展了以往对SNARC效应本质的理解。

关键词: SNARC效应, 具身认知, 奇偶判断任务, Go/No-go任务

Abstract: When participants are asked to judge the parity of presented digits, smaller numbers are associated with faster left-hand responses, and larger numbers with faster right-hand responses. This association of numbers with space is called as the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (the SNARC effect). The effect has been examined and confirmed in an ever growing literature in cognitive psychology. Some researchers argue that the origin of SNARC can be attributed to the existence of a left-to-right oriented “mental number line”. Some others favor that a dual-route cognitive model can account for the SNARC effect. Both accounts above focus on the cognitive processing of the SNARC effect. However, few studies have investigated the impact of body form and social environment on the SNARC effect. In this study, the SNARC effect was further explored from the perspective of Embodied Cognition. According to Embodied Cognition, the mind, brain, body and environment are organized into an integrative system because the brain is embedded in the body and the body is embedded in the environment. Therefore, the states of body and its environment play a great role in cognitive processes. With 127 college students and three experimental tasks including a parity decision task, a Go/No-go task and a joint Go/No-go task, the present study aimed to explore the impact of body form and social environment on the SNARC effect. Participants were asked to respond to both even and odd numbers in Experiment 1, which served as a baseline for the following experiments. Consistent with previous studies, the SNARC effect was observed in this experiment. In Experiment 2, subjects were administered the Go/No-go task and required to respond to only one mode of parity with only one response key. It was found that the SNARC effect disappeared. We speculated that the disappearance of the SNARC effect could be due to that a point of body instead of a line was represented. It seemed that the physical form could affect the SNARC effect. In Experiment 3, two participants performed complementary actions, termed the joint Go/No-go task, with one responding to odd and the other to even. According to the consistency between sitting sides and hands, four conditions were designed. In the condition 1, the sitting sides and hands were completely consistent: The persons on the left responded with their left hands while those on the right responded with their right hands. In the condition 2, the sitting sides and hands were completely opposite: The left participants responded with their right hands while the right ones responded with their left hands. In the condition 3 and 4, the sitting sides and hands were partly consistent. Specifically, both left and right participants responded with their left hands in the condition 3 while both left and right participants responded with their right hands in the condition 4. Interestingly, the SNARC effect appeared only in the condition 1, which might be attributed to the role of human mirror neuron that could map the observation of external action on internal motor representation. In the joint Go/No-go task, actions of one person as well as actions of his/her cooperator were likely to be represented in the person, leading to the appearance of the SNARC effect. However, the SNARC effect did not appear in the other three conditions, suggesting that the effect only appeared when the sitting side was consistent with the hand. The results of Experiment 3 indicated that the SNARC effect could be affected by social environment and physical form.

Key words: the SNARC effect, embodied cognition, a parity decision task, a Go/No-go task