ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (06): 492-500.

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  1. 天津师范大学心理与行为研究院,天津

  • 收稿日期:2008-11-18 修回日期:1900-01-01 发布日期:2009-06-30 出版日期:2009-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 朱昭红

Autonomic Nervous Arousal and Behavioral Response of Punishment and Reward in Extroverts and Introverts

BAI Xue-Jun; ZHU Zhao-Hong; SHEN De-Li; LIU Nan   

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  • Received:2008-11-18 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-06-30 Published:2009-06-30
  • Contact: ZHU Zhao-Hong

摘要: 将停止信号任务和金钱激励延迟任务相结合,使用16导生理记录仪记录被试的生理指标,探讨内外倾者在动机凸显情景下的生理唤醒特点以及反应调节能力。结果发现,隐含奖励和惩罚线索呈现之后,内外倾者的心率增快,内倾者的皮肤电活动显著增强。在停止信号任务中的优势反应阶段,内外倾者表现为对奖励凸显线索刺激的反应时缩短;而在非优势反应阶段,和外倾者相比较,内倾者的抑制反应错误率增高。表明内外倾者在奖惩线索条件下表现出不同的生理唤醒特点和行为反应。

关键词: 内倾, 外倾, 停止信号任务, MID任务, 心率, 皮肤电活动


Few studies have examined the underlying mechanism that links social behavior to reward and punishment systems in different personality types. The current study was designed to investigate this mechanism by examining autonomic nervous arousal and behavioral responses to both rewarding and punishing stimuli in extrovert and introvert personalities.
The stop signal task, including dominant process and non-dominant process, and the monetary incentive delay task (MID)were performed by twenty extroverted and twenty introverted undergraduates. In the MID task, both potentially rewarding and potentially punishing stimuli were shown to the participants, and then they were required to make an adaptive response to obtain a positive outcome or to avoid a negative outcome.
The behavioural results showed that both extroverts and introverts responded more quickly to rewarding stimuli compared to punishing and neutral stimuli in dominant process, while only introverts made disinhibitory responses in non-dominant process in the stop signal task. Moreover, arousal data also showed that both groups of participants had faster heart rates and higher skin conductance levels to rewarding and punishing significant stimuli than to neutral stimuli; however, introverts had a higher skin conductance level to rewarding and punishing significant stimuli compared to extroverts.
The results suggested that extroverts exhibited BAS activation, while introverts exhibited BIS activation in the context of both rewarding and punishing stimuli. Therefore, the two groups produced different response modes during the dominant process and non-dominant process.

Key words: introvert and extravert, stop signal task, MID, heart rate, skin conductance activity