ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (1): 39-49.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00039

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (天津师范大学心理与行为研究院; 国民心理健康评估与促进协同创新中心, 天津 300074)
  • 收稿日期:2013-09-24 发布日期:2015-01-26 出版日期:2015-01-26
  • 通讯作者: 白学军, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

    天津市教育科学“十二五”规划课题(CE4033); 天津市高等学校人文科学研究项目(20102543); 天津市高等学校心理健康与行为调控创新团队(39)资助。

Impact of Reward/punishment Conditions on Behavioral Inhibition and Automatic Physiological Responses in the Stages

GU Li; BAI Xuejun; WANG Qin   

  1. (Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjing Normal University; Center of Cooperative Innovation for Assessment and Promotion of National Mental Health, Tianjing 300074, China)
  • Received:2013-09-24 Online:2015-01-26 Published:2015-01-26
  • Contact: BAI Xuejun, E-mail:


采用停止信号任务探讨奖惩条件对行为抑制和程序阶段中自主生理反应的影响。结果显示:(1)奖惩组的反应时显著高于控制组, 抑制失败率则显著低于控制组; (2)奖励组与其它两组相比表现出心率显著增加和皮肤电活动显著降低; (3)各生理指标在准备、工作和奖惩阶段中的奖惩差异性显著(4)奖惩条件下皮肤电活动呈现出一致性程序阶段变化。结果表明:奖惩条件均对行为具有抑制作用, 但在自主生理反应上则有显著差异; 各生理指标在准备、工作和奖惩阶段的情绪效价显著; 皮肤电活动的程序阶段变化显著, 但其奖惩效价较为稳定, 很少接受程序阶段变化的影响。

关键词: 奖励条件, 惩罚条件, 行为抑制, 自主生理反应, 停止信号任务


Though the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) provides a biological interpretation for the relationship between emotions and behavioral inhibition aroused by reward/punishment, it is still somewhat limited when attempting to explain specific phenomena. This may be attributed to factors such as the type, degree, and duration of reward/punishment stimuli, which have differed across studies. For instance, in many studies reward/punishment is a within-subjects factor, however, in clinical situations a cumulative and constant reward/punishment model is more commonly encountered, such as persistent praise or criticism of a certain individual. Furthermore, the emotion triggered by cumulative reward/punishment could manifest at any stage of the task completing process. Accordingly, this research investigated the impact of cumulative reward/punishment conditions on inhibition and automatic physiological responses during different time stages. Forty-five college students were allocated to a reward group, punishment group, or control group at random. The experiment used the Super Lab system to present stimuli and record the response time and rate of error inhibition shown by the subjects during the stop-signal task. Automatic physiological responses were collected continuously throughout the whole procedure (preparatory stage, working stage, feedback stage and reward/punishment stage) by a 16-channel physiological recording system. The results showed that: (1) in the absence of the stop-signal task, the response time of the reward group and punishment group was significantly longer than that of control group, and during the stop-signal task, the error inhibition rate of the reward group and punishment group was significantly lower than that of control group. However, there were no difference between the reward group and punishment group; (2) Heart rates within the reward group were much higher than those in the punishment group and control group, and finger temperatures were much higher than those in the control group; however, skin conductance responses in the reward group weremuch lower than those in the punishment and control groups;(3) Compared with other stages, the variation of these physical signals was much lower at the feedback stage; (4) The three groups differed in heart rate, finger temperature, and finger pulse rate at all stages, but skin conductance responses did not show significant differences across the groups. The results reveal that behavioral arousal is not synchronized with physiological arousal during reward and punishment conditions. Both the reward and punishment conditions showed inhibition to the behavioral measures, but they showed significant differences in physical arousal.

Key words: reward, punishment, behavioral inhibition, stop signal task, automatic physiological responses