ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (03): 220-232.

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  1. 华南师范大学心理系暨心理应用研究中心,广州 510631
  • 收稿日期:2008-01-09 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2009-03-30 发布日期:2009-03-30
  • 通讯作者: 王穗苹

Semantic Codes are Obtained before Word Fixation in Chinese Sentence Reading: Evidence from Eye-movements

WANG Sui-Ping;TONG Xiu-Hong;YANG Jin-Mian;LENG Ying   

  1. Department of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China
  • Received:2008-01-09 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-03-30 Published:2009-03-30
  • Contact: WANG Sui-Ping

摘要: 采用句子为阅读材料,变化句子中一个单字词形成语义连贯与语义违背两种实验条件,通过两个眼动实验探讨中文句子阅读中预视效应的产生是否受语义信息的影响。实验一运用自然阅读范式,考察当语义连贯与违背两类信息被读者直接注视时,读者眼动模式的变化。结果发现,在语义连贯与违背两种条件下,读者的眼动模式在目标位置立即产生差异,违背条件下首次注视时间更长,说明中文句子理解中语义加工可以进行得十分即时。实验二运用边界技术,使实验一的语义连贯与违背两类关键字只呈现在预视位置上,当读者的注视点越过边界时,两类预视字均变为另一个与句子意义连贯的目标字。结果发现,语义违背预视条件下,读者对预视位置将进行更长时间的加工。上述结果表明,中文句子阅读过程中,语义信息可以对预视效应产生影响

关键词: 边界技术, 预视效应, 语义信息, 即时性, 眼动

Abstract: One of the important findings in reading research is the preview benefit: in addition to the currently fixated character information from the character to the right of the fixation located in the perceptual span was extracted and used in reading. Fixation durations were shorter when the appropriate visual information about the currently fixated character was available on the previous fixation than when it was inappropriate, suggesting that some preprocessing of the current character (referred as character n) occurred when the eyes were fixating the previous character (referred as character n-1).
In research on alphabetic scripts, it was generally agreed that the preview benefit can result from orthographic and phonological processes. But it was unclear whether semantic information can be extracted from the preview word and produces a preview effect. Albeit some positive evidence, most of the western studies did not support a semantic preview effect. Further, as most studies on this topic have been conducted in alphabetic languages, it is unclear whether the same conclusion applies to non-alphabetic languages such as Chinese which differ from alphabetic languages in many important aspects.
The present study examined whether semantic preview effect can occur in Chinese sentence reading.
In Experiment 1, to examine the immediacy effect of Chinese sentence reading, Chinese participants were instructed to read 44 sentences each containing a target character located in the middle of a sentence, either semantically consistent or inconsistent with the sentence context while their eye movements were recorded.
Results of experiment 1 showed that first-pass processing time was significantly longer at the target character position for the inconsistent target than for the consistent target. This consistency effect indicated that Chinese readers were able to detect the inconsistency right at the target position.
In Experiment 2, an eye-monitoring procedure with the boundary paradigm was adopted to determine whether the semantically violated information located at the preview position (character n) could be detected when the eyes were fixating character n - 1. The stimulus and design were similar to that in Experiment 1, except that the target, either a consistent or inconsistent character, was presented in the preview position when character n-1 was fixated and it turned into another character which was always consistent with the sentence context when character n was fixated.
Results of experiment 2 showed that first-pass fixation was significantly longer at the critical regions for the semantic inconsistent condition relative to the consistent condition, indicating that the semantic information of character n was extracted when character n-1 was fixated.
To sum up, the present results indicate that semantic processing in Chinese sentence reading can occur immediately. Even for characters located in the preview position, their semantic information can be extracted and used.

Key words: preview effect, semantic information, immediacy, eye-movement


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