ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 111-116.

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联想启动与知觉启动的比较研究

杨炯炯;翁旭初;管林初;匡培梓   

  1. 中国科学院心理研究所,中国科学院心理研究所,中国科学院心理研究所,中国科学院心理研究所 北京100101;北京大学心理学系,北京100871 ,北京100101 ,北京100101 ,北京100101
  • 出版日期:2001-04-25 发布日期:2001-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨炯炯

COMPARISON OF ASSOCIATIVE PRIMING AND PERCEPTUAL PRIMING EFFECTS

Yang Jiongjiong Weng Xuchu Guan Linchu Kuang Peizi ( Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijng 100101) ( Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)   

  • Online:2001-04-25 Published:2001-04-25

摘要: 采用快速命名方法探讨不同加工水平对联想启动效应的影响。被试分别在深、浅加工条件下学习一系列颜色词,然后完成颜色命名和再认任务,并设立词命名任务,以比较联想启动和知觉启动的异同。结果表明,在颜色命名任务中,深、浅加工条件下均可形成对颜色词的启动效应,但浅加工条件下的再认成绩明显低于深加工,出现了联想启动和再认的分离现象。词命名表现出与颜色命名相似的结果,但它们在有意识回忆方面仍存在一定的差异,提示知觉表征系统单独并不能支持联想启动,联想启动可能是多个记忆系统共同作用的结果。

关键词: 联想启动, 加工水平, 快速命名, 知觉表征系统

Abstract: Recent studies have shown that human memory consists of several memory systems. One of them is perceptual representation system (PRS). It supports perceptual priming effect, which is unaffected by the level of processing. But when the modality or the characteristics of the stimuli (e. g., form, color) changes, the priming effect becomes lower. However, some unsolved issues remain on priming for new associations or associative priming. For example, whether PRS alone supports associative priming; whether level of processing affects associative priming; and whether there is some relations between conscious retrieval and associative priming. In order to understand the nature of priming for new associations, this study compared associative priming and perceptual priming, by exploring the effects of level of processing on forming memory for new associations with speeded naming tasks. In experiment 1, after studying a series of colored words under deep or shallow condition, subjects were asked to perform color naming task and recognition task. The procedure of experiment 2 was the same except that the color naming task was replaced by word naming task. Awareness Questionnaire was asked to fill in to avoid the conscious retrieval subjects. Experiment 1 showed that under both encoding conditions subjects could form priming for new associations. They named the old color words quicker than the recombined color words. But the scores of recognition were lower under shallow condition than that under deep condition, with the dissociation of associative priming and recognition task. Experiment 2 had similar results with the dissociation of perceptual priming and recognition task. Both associative priming and perceptual priming were unaffected by level of processing in this study. However, there was some difference in conscious retrieval between word naming and color naming tasks. More subjects noticed the relation between the study and the test in color naming task than in word naming task. The results suggested that perceptual representation system alone could not support associative priming. Priming for new associations may need the interaction between PRS and other memory systems.

Key words: associative priming, level of processing, speeded naming, perceptual representation system