ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2024, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (3): 255-267.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00255

• 研究报告 •    下一篇


刘雨杰1,2, 刘晨淼3, 周丽琴3(), 周可3()   

  1. 1中国科学院生物物理研究所, 脑与认知科学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2中国科学院大学中丹学院, 北京 100049
    3北京师范大学心理学部, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学), 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2023-03-28 发布日期:2023-12-11 出版日期:2024-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 周可, E-mail:;周丽琴, E-mail:;
  • 基金资助:

The effect of task relevance on serial dependence in numerosity

LIU Yujie1,2, LIU Chenmiao3, ZHOU Liqin3(), ZHOU Ke3()   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2Sino-Danish College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University), Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2023-03-28 Online:2023-12-11 Published:2024-03-25


序列依赖效应反映了当前的知觉体验不仅取决于当下的刺激输入, 还受到近期历史的影响。这一效应对于我们在动态变化的环境中形成相对稳定的知觉至关重要。本研究使用点阵作为刺激材料, 在数量/面积(实验1)或数量/大小(实验2)两个维度上进行正交设计, 旨在通过估计任务探索任务相关性如何影响线性分布特征的序列依赖效应。结果显示无论特征是否与任务相关, 前一试次与当前试次同一特征总会对当前试次的知觉产生相反的影响。对于任务相关特征, 前一试次产生的序列依赖始终为排斥效应。而对于任务无关特征, 如果在当前试次中无关特征对被试的知觉反应有正向预测作用, 则前一试次无关特征产生排斥的序列依赖效应; 反之, 如果在当前试次中无关特征对被试的知觉反应有负向预测, 则前一试次无关特征产生吸引的序列依赖效应。任务相关性对序列依赖效应的影响主要体现在效应幅值的降低。这些发现揭示了线性分布特征的序列依赖效应受任务相关性以及特征本身特性的共同影响, 而无关特征的序列依赖效应则暗示在客体水平也可以产生序列依赖效应。

关键词: 序列依赖效应, 数量感, 任务相关性, 线性分布的特征


Serial dependence refers to the phenomenon where current perception is influenced not only by the current stimulus input but also by preceding events in recent history. This effect plays a crucial role in the establishment of relatively stable perceptions in dynamically changing environments. Previous studies have shown that the extent and direction of serial dependence are related to the task relevance of stimulus features. It is still unclear, though, if task relevance in linearly distributed features affects this impact, given that the majority of these researches have mostly focused on experiments using circularly distributed features. The current study investigated the impact of task relevance of linearly distributed features on serial dependence by using estimation tasks with dot arrays as stimulus materials, which were varying orthogonally in two dimensions: number/area (Experiment 1) or number/size (Experiment 2).

The study employed a 7 (number of dots) × 7 (dot array area in Exp 1/average dot size in Exp 2) × 2 (task relevance: relevant vs. irrelevant feature) block design. In the number estimation task, participants were instructed to focus on the number of dots, thus prioritizing the number as a relevant feature, while deeming the field area irrelevant. Conversely, the field area estimation task directed attention to the field area of dot array, making it the relevant feature and relegating the number to irrelevance. Experiment 2 followed the same experimental paradigm as Experiment 1, with the key difference being that it replaced the field area estimation task with an average item size estimation task. Each participant underwent all experimental conditions, with the order of the two tasks balanced across them. Initially, a fixation cross was presented for 1350−1450 ms, followed by a dot array image shown at the center of the screen for 250 ms. Task instruction then appeared at the top of the screen, accompanied by an axis beneath. Participants were instructed to accurately estimate the number of dots in the array by selecting a point on the number line through mouse click. The mouse click would trigger the appearance of a white marker, indicating the selected position, and its corresponding numerical value was exhibited underneath. Participants then affirm their estimation by pressing the “Enter” key. A response window of 15 seconds was provided; failure to respond within this period led to a 'no response' recording (marked as “N/A”) for that trial, and the program automatically proceeded to the next trial.

Our findings revealed that the effect of a feature from previous trial on current perception consistently counteracted the influence of the same feature in the current trial, regardless of the feature's task relevance. From a serial dependence perspective, the effects of previous task-relevant features were always repulsive; however, whether the previous task-irrelevant features showed attractive or repulsive serial dependence effects, was depended on the specific feature. This highlights the dual influence of task relevance and feature characteristics on the serial dependence effect of linearly distributed features. Notably, the persistence of the serial dependence of the irrelevant features implies that serial dependence can also arise at the object level.

Key words: serial dependence, numerosity perception, task relevance, linear distributed feature