ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (10): 1297-1308.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.01297

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  1. (1浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028) (2北京师范大学认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室, 北京 100875)
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-25 出版日期:2012-10-25 发布日期:2012-10-23
  • 通讯作者: 张智君
  • 基金资助:


Numerosity Adaptation Effect on the Basis of Perceived Numerosity

LIU Wei,ZHANG Zhi-Jun,ZHAO Ya-Jun   

  1. (1Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China) (2 State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
  • Received:2011-11-25 Online:2012-10-25 Published:2012-10-23
  • Contact: ZHANG Zhi-Jun

摘要: 数量适应是指观察者在知觉上适应刺激数量的过程, 这一过程可以通过考察适应后其数量感知的变化加以揭示。目前对这一现象的争论焦点在于它是对数量的单独适应还是对非数量表面信息的适应。本研究通过改变刺激点大小和刺激组块两种方式, 探讨非数量表面信息对数量感知和数量适应的影响。实验一证明刺激点大小不会对数量感知产生显著影响。实验二发现刺激组块会对数量感知产生显著影响。实验三在前两个实验基础上发现:刺激大小不对数量感知产生显著影响, 也不影响数量适应, 而刺激组块能显著改变数量感知, 并按照改变后的数量感进行适应。三个实验的结果说明:表面信息只有在影响到数量感知时才会影响适应, 数量适应是基于数量感知的加工而产生的适应现象。

关键词: 数量感知, 数量适应, 知觉分组, 客体表征

Abstract: Number sense means our ability to quickly understand, approximate, and manipulate numerical quantities. The adaptation effect of numerosity refers to the adaptation to the number of stimuli, with an aftereffect that can be revealed by the changes of perceived numerosity in the following numerosity judging tasks, in which numerosity adaptation effects can be quantified by asking subjects whether a test stimulus presented to the adapted region appears more or less numerous than a probe stimulus presented to the un-adapted area. The current debate of numerosity adaptation effect focuses on whether it is really driven from the numerosity of stimuli, or resulted from processing of surface information. In order to testify the independence of the numerosity adaptation effect from texture information, previous studies have concentrated on the influence of related spatial variables, such as dot density. In those experiments, different non-numerical surface characteristics were manipulated, while the perception of numerosity was not taken into consideration, in spite of its important links with surface characteristics of stimuli and adaptation respectively. So, the relationship among numerosity adaptation, numerosity perception and surface characteristics of stimuli was examined in our study. By changing the size of dots or grouping them into chunks, we investigated the influence of surface information on numerosity perception and adaptation. In experiment 1, two stimuli (dot sets) were presented horizontally and simultaneously, and they consisted of dots with different sizes (0.16°×0.16°as the small dimension, 0.16°×0.16°as the large dimension). Participants were asked to compare the numerosity of dots within the two stimuli. The result suggested no size-related influence in the numerosity judgment. In experiment 2, the 405-dot-stimuli were subjectively grouped into 45 chunks according to the spatial distribution and grayness information, each of which was composed of 9 dots. Participants were asked to estimate the numerosity of either chunks or total dots, and the estimation of 45 or 405 discrete dots were set as control. Subjects apparently underestimated the number of total dots, compared to the control condition. In experiment 3, one the hand, we found that the size of dots had no significant influence on numerosity adaptation, as long as the perception of their numerosity was unchanging, despite their apparent differences in surface characteristics. On the other hand, perceptual grouping of dots had a significant effect on numerosity adaptation, and a changed adaptation effect based on the changed perception of numerosity was observed under that condition. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that adaptation of numerosity is based on perceived numerosity. Surface information does not affect the numerosity adaptation effect unless it affects the perception of numerosity as well. Humans correctly judge the number of dots with different sizes. Grouping has an effect on perceived numerosity, that is, there is a significant underestimation of total number of dots when they can be grouped into chunks. The numerosity adaptation effect keeps constant as long as the varied texture characters had no effect on the perception of numerosity. Otherwise, it will be apparently affected when the perceived numerosity is interfered with the changing of texture. Therefore, number adaptation effect is an adaptation based on perceived numerosity, rather than a co-product driven from the processing of surrogate surface features.

Key words: perception of numerosity, numerosity adaptation effect, perceptual grouping, object representation