ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2024, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (1): 107-123.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00107

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


张雯1,2, 潘超2,3, 姚诗铭1,2, 朱佳佳1,2, 凌东1,4, 杨涵淳1,5, 徐静莎1,6, 穆妍1,2()   

  1. 1中国科学院行为科学重点实验室(中国科学院心理研究所), 北京 100101
    2中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049
    3河南大学心理学院, 开封 475004
    4南宁泰康之家桂园养老服务有限公司, 南宁 530010
    5爱丁堡大学社会科学院临床健康心理学系, 爱丁堡 EH8 9AG, 英国
    6麦吉尔大学心理学系, 蒙特利尔 H3A 1G1, 加拿大
  • 收稿日期:2022-09-01 发布日期:2023-11-23 出版日期:2024-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 穆妍
  • 基金资助:

“Neijuan” in China: The psychological concept and its characteristic dimensions

ZHANG Wen1,2, PAN Chao2,3, YAO Shiming1,2, ZHU Jiajia1,2, LING Dong1,4, YANG Hanchun1,5, XU Jingsha1,6, MU Yan1,2()   

  1. 1CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3Department of Psychology, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
    4Nanning Taikang Home Guiyuan Elderly Care Service Co., Ltd., Nanning 530010, China
    5Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, School of Health in Social Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK
    6Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal H3A 1G1, Canada
  • Received:2022-09-01 Online:2023-11-23 Published:2024-01-25
  • Contact: MU Yan


随着中国社会的发展, “内卷”引发了全民关注与讨论, 但研究者对内卷的心理内涵、特征维度及其测量工具仍在探索中。本研究首次以文化心理学作为研究视角, 提出中国社会的内卷极具新时代意义, 是与中国社会文化紧密相连的多维心理概念。研究1采用访谈法, 通过分析在校学生与在岗社会人员对内卷看法的一手资料, 结合扎根理论初步提出内卷的心理内涵及其特征维度, 即资源稀缺、社会规范、心理压力、竞争行为。研究2在访谈研究的基础上编制了内卷感知测量问卷, 通过探索性因素分析得到包含18个条目的四维度问卷。研究3通过验证性因素分析和效标效度检验, 在跨人群样本中验证了内卷的4个特征维度。研究4采用内卷情境任务发现, 在高校情境和组织情境中, 内卷感知更高的个体均更易表现出内卷行为倾向。综上, 本研究首次明晰中国社会中内卷的心理内涵及其特征维度, 并提供了测量个体感知内卷的有效工具, 有助于未来探究内卷对个体心理以及社会性发展的影响机制。

关键词: 内卷, 竞争, 社会规范, 文化心理学, 中国社会


With the deepening and spread of reform and opening-up, China has undergone rapid and unprecedented economic growth and societal transformations over the past few decades. Accumulating evidence has revealed the impacts of sociocultural changes on Chinese mental health. Since 2020, a popular buzzword, “Neijuan” (involution), has garnered significant attention and discussion in daily life. Neijuan could be traced back to agricultural involution, which refers to a process of inward over-elaboration in agricultural development. This concept was first identified by the anthropologist Geertz (1963), who observed that population growth failed to enhance productivity growth and economic development.

Despite Neijuan's growing attention, it is still unclear about the connotation and characteristic dimensions of this social phenomenon. Cultural psychology provides a solid theoretical and empirical basis for exploring how social and cultural changes affect individuals’ psychological states and behaviors. In this context, we propose that Neijuan is a multidimensional psychological concept of great significance in this new era, closely connected to cultural changes in China’s rapid development and growth.

To explore the psychological concept of Neijuan, Study 1 employed a grounded theory approach through in-depth interviews to clarify the intricate psychological components of Neijuan. Based on the results of Study 1, Studies 2 and 3 developed a measurement tool to validate the multiple characteristic dimensions of Neijuan in Chinese culture, utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The findings suggested that Neijuan comprises four dimensions: resource scarcity, social norm, psychological pressure, and competition. Subsequently, Study 4 used Neijuan scenario-based task in the university and workplace environments to assess participants’ behavioral tendencies related to Neijuan and examined the relationship between individuals’ perceptions of Neijuan and their actual behaviors. Results revealed that individuals with higher levels of perceived Nejuan exhibited a greater tendency to engage in behaviors associated with Neijuan.

In summary, the series of studies sought to explore the psychological concept and multiple characteristic dimensions of Neijuan, which provides a theoretical and empirical basis for understanding this significant phenomenon in the contemporary era. The current research also offers an effective measurement tool to assess individuals’ perception of Neijuan and enlightens future research on the effect of Neijuan on psychological maladjustment and non-benign competition behaviors related to Neijuan.

Key words: Neijuan, competition, social norms, cultural psychology, Chinese society