ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (10): 1143-1156.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01143

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同热情-能力社会群体刻板印象激活效应的行为模式:基于刻板印象内容模型 *

杨亚平1, 徐强1, 朱婷婷1, 郑旭涛1, 董晓晔1, 陈庆伟2,3,4()   

  1. 1 宁波大学心理学系暨研究所, 宁波 315211
    2 华南师范大学, 国家绿色光电子国际联合研究中心, 广州 510006
    3 华南师范大学, 华南先进光电子研究院, 广东省光信息材料与技术重点实验室&彩色动态电子纸显示技术研究所, 广州 510006
    4 华南师范大学, 心理学院, 光与身心健康实验室, 广州 510631
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-18 出版日期:2019-11-25 发布日期:2019-08-19
  • 通讯作者: 陈庆伟 E-mail:qingwei.chen@m.scnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 教育部人文社会科学青年基金项目(15YJC190024);国家教育部人文社会科学研究项目资助(18YJC190027)

The behavioral patterns of stereotype activation among four different warmth-competence social groups based on Stereotype Content Model

YANG Yaping1, XU Qiang1, ZHU Tingting1, ZHENG Xutao1, DONG Xiaoye1, CHEN Qingwei2,3,4()   

  1. 1 Department of Psychology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China
    2 National Center for International Research on Green Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
    3 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Information Materials and Technology & Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
    4 Lab of Light and Physio-psychological Health, School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2018-07-18 Online:2019-11-25 Published:2019-08-19
  • Contact: CHEN Qingwei E-mail:qingwei.chen@m.scnu.edu.cn

摘要:

刻板印象激活是社会知觉中至关重要的认知过程, 以往关于刻板印象激活的研究主要聚焦于某一类或两类社会群体, 导致对于刻板印象激活缺乏整体性的认识。本研究立足于经典的用于分类社会群体的刻板印象内容模型(SCM), 采用启动-靶子一致性判断任务和词汇判断任务, 分别从外显和内隐两个层面对该模型下不同热情-能力的4类社会群体刻板印象激活效应的行为模式进行系统的探讨。结果发现, 无论是外显层面还是内隐层面, 高热情-高能力、高热情-低能力、低热情-高能力三类社会群体均遵循经典的刻板印象激活模式——一致条件下的反应时更快; 而低热情-低能力群体则在外显和內隐加工上均表现出刻板印象激活效应的反转模式——冲突条件下比一致条件下的反应更快更准确。本研究拓宽了刻板印象激活的研究视角, 首次发现低热情-低能力群体具有与传统相反的刻板印象激活效应模式, 这一结果为该群体加工的特异性提供了新的证据。未来研究可以从注意和厌恶情绪的角度对刻板印象激活效应反转模式的加工机制进行深入探讨。

关键词: 刻板印象, 刻板印象内容模型, 刻板印象激活, 内隐, 外显

Abstract:

Stereotypes are vital for social interaction by facilitating social decision making as well as conserving limited time and cognitive resources. Previous studies on stereotype activation mainly focus specific social groups, such as gender, race, etc. However, exactly how stereotypes are activated among various social groups remains unknown.

To fill this gap, we classified social groups into four clusters according to stereotype content model in the present study, measuring for perceptions of warmth and competence. These clusters form a four-way axis, that is, high warmth-high competence (HW-HC), high warmth-low competence (HW-LC), low warmth-high competence (LW-HC) and low warmth-low competence (LW-LC). Two experiments were conducted to investigate the behavioral patterns of stereotype activation among these four clusters. We predicted that the stereotype activation pattern would be similar among these four clusters.

In the first experiment, we employed a sequential priming paradigm to explore stereotype activation explicitly. The prime stimuli were 24 social groups equally attributed to these four clusters and the target stimuli were stereotype trait words of these 24 social groups. All of the prime stimuli and target stimuli were obtained from pilot study. The participants were instructed to judge whether the target word was consistent with the stereotypes of the prime social group. Fifty undergraduates (35 female, 19~25 years old, M = 20.68, SD = 2.08) were recruited for this experiment.

In the second experiment, to validate the findings of Experiment 1, we utilized a lexical decision task to further investigate the stereotype activation patterns among the four clusters implicitly, using the same stimuli from Experiment 1. Pseudowords were also added, corresponding to the target words of Experiment 1. Participants were asked to identify whether the target word as a real word or pseudoword. Forty eight undergraduates (32 female, 19~25 years old, M = 20.64, SD = 1.93) participated in Experiment 2.

Four (Social groups: HW-HC, HW-LC, LW-HC, LW-LC) × 2 (Consistency: consistent vs. inconsistent) repeated measure ANOVA were examined for response time and accuracy in both experiments. The results of Experiment 1 revealed classical stereotype activation patterns for HW-HC, HW-LC, LW-HC social groups while showing a reverse pattern for LW-LC social groups. Specifically, the participants responded more quickly and more accurately on consistent condition than on inconsistent condition for the former three clusters. However, when the prime stimuli were LW-LC social groups, the reverse was true; faster and more accurate response was shown for inconsistent condition rather than consistent condition. In Experiment 2, only real word trails were analyzed. The results of Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1. Therefore, classical stereotype activation patterns for HW-HC, HW-LC, LW-HC social groups and the reverse pattern of stereotype activation for LW-LC were relatively robust, both explicitly and implicitly, demonstrating the great differences among the stereotype activation patterns among these four clusters.

The results of these two experiments partially support our hypothesis, while revealing an unforeseen reverse pattern of stereotype activation for LW-LC social groups. We hypothesize that this may be due to disgust elicited by LW-LC social groups. The present study expanded the research framework of stereotype activation and provided new behavioral evidence for the specificity of LW-LC. The mechanism underlying the reverse pattern of stereotype activation for LW-LC should be examined in the future.

Key words: stereotype, stereotype content model, stereotype activation, explicit, implicit

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