ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (9): 1040-1056.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01040

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

侗歌经验对侗族中学生执行功能的影响

王婷1, 植凤英2, 陆禹同1, 张积家1()   

  1. 1. 中国人民大学心理学系、国家民委民族语言文化心理重点研究基地、教育部民族教育发展中心民族心理与教育重点研究基地, 北京 100872
    2. 贵州师范大学教育科学学院, 贵阳 550001
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-08 出版日期:2019-08-21 发布日期:2019-07-24
  • 通讯作者: 张积家 E-mail:Zhangjj1955@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 中国人民大学科学研究基金(中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金资助)项目“语言影响人格:来自双语者与双言者的行为与生理证据” 阶段性成果(7XNL002)

Effect of Dong Chorus on the executive function of Dong high school students

WANG Ting1, ZHI Fengying2, LU Yutong1, ZHANG Jijia1()   

  1. 1. Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China; The State Ethnic Affairs Commission Key Research Center for Language, Cultural, and Psychology; Key Research Center for National Psychology and Education, the National Education Development Center of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100872, China
    2. School of Education Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China
  • Received:2018-08-08 Online:2019-08-21 Published:2019-07-24
  • Contact: ZHANG Jijia E-mail:Zhangjj1955@163.com

摘要:

音乐训练对认知能力具有广泛的促进效应。本研究结合执行功能的三个成分(抑制控制、工作记忆和认知灵活性), 在我国民族音乐背景下, 匹配实验任务的视觉和听觉形式, 探讨侗歌经验对侗族中学生执行功能的影响。结果表明, 侗歌组被试在抑制能力和刷新能力上显著好于侗族非侗歌组被试和汉族被试, 这一优势在视觉任务中和听觉任务中均存在, 说明侗歌经验产生的认知优势具有跨感觉通道的普遍性。侗歌组被试和侗族非侗歌组被试的转换能力差异不显著。侗族非侗歌组被试的抑制能力和转换能力好于汉族被试, 这体现了语言和音乐的交互作用。

关键词: 侗族, 侗族大歌, 执行功能

Abstract:

Considerable research suggests that musical experience and ability are related to various cognitive abilities. One aspect of cognition that may be related to musical training is executive function (EF), which involves a set of top-down processes that regulate behavior and cognition according to task demands. To date, many studies are investigating this relationship. However, results are mixed and difficult to compare because of not only the variety of EF components examined but also the variety of tasks used to measure EF and the variety of criteria used to categorize participants as “musicians” or “non-musicians.” Moreover, most studies focus more on Western music than Chinese folk music, which has its own unique expression and distinct musical character.

Dong Chorus, which is the multipart folk chorus of the Dong people in Guizhou Province, holds an important and unusual position in Chinese polyphonic folk songs. This stature is due to their splendid artistry, long history that can be textually researched, and the great influence of their vivid artistic practice, which gained the favor of numerous musicians. However, only a few scholars have studied the folk songs from the perspective of cognitive psychology or by means of experiments.

In this study, we divide EFs into three core components: inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility in auditory and visual modalities. Dong musicians (n = 32), Dong non-musicians (n = 32), and the Han (n = 32) high school students were involved in six experiments to test the effect of Dong Chorus on cognition and the existence and generality of the relationship between musical ability and EFs.

Results showed that Dong musicians and non-musicians outperformed Han students in inhibitory control and memory updating in auditory and visual versions of EF tasks, but no significant difference existed among the three groups in terms of shifting, which proved the generality of cognitive advantages of Dong Chorus. Dong non-musicians outperformed Han students in inhibition and switching, which suggested the interaction between language and music.

In summary, these results indicated that cognitive advantages associated with Dong Chorus are not limited to auditory processes, but they are limited to specific aspects of EF. This finding supports a process-specific (but modality-general) relationship between musical ability and nonmusical aspects of cognition. Protecting and developing the Dong Chorus are important.

Key words: Dong nationality, Dong Chorus, executive function

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