ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (5): 584-597.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00584

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

儿童在不同卷入情境下基于资源价值的分配行为特点:内群体偏爱的作用

刘璐, 肖雪, 刘丽莎, 徐良苑, 张旭然, 李燕芳()   

  1. 北京师范大学中国基础教育质量监测协同创新中心, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-04 出版日期:2019-05-25 发布日期:2019-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 李燕芳 E-mail:liyanfang@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(15BRK011);北京师范大学中国基础教育质量监测协同创新中心研究生自主课题(BJSM-2016A1-16002)

Children’s quality-based resource allocation in different involvement contexts: The role of in-group favoritism

LIU Lu, XIAO Xue, LIU Lisha, XU Liangyuan, ZHANG Xuran, LI Yanfang()   

  1. Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment toward Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2018-05-04 Online:2019-05-25 Published:2019-03-20
  • Contact: LI Yanfang E-mail:liyanfang@bnu.edu.cn

摘要:

为探究不同卷入情境下儿童基于资源价值的分配行为特点以及内群体偏爱在其中的作用, 呈现给儿童两种实验情境:实验1, 134名5~8岁儿童在第一方情境下与来自内、外群体的一名儿童分配不同价值的物品, 结果发现7~8岁儿童公平分配比例与5~6岁儿童无显著差异; 实验2, 130名5~8岁儿童在第三方情境下给来自特定群体的两名儿童分配资源, 结果发现7~8岁儿童公平分配比例显著高于5~6岁儿童。两个实验均发现儿童的分配行为表现出内群体偏爱, 5~6岁儿童比7~8岁儿童更明显。并且, 5~6岁女生比男生有更明显的内群体偏爱, 但在7~8岁组无性别差异。此外, 只有7~8岁儿童的公平分配行为表现出卷入情境上的差异, 他们在第三方情境比第一方情境下更能做出公平分配, 但5~6岁儿童的公平分配行为并无情境差异。综上可见, 比起年幼儿童, 年长儿童基于资源价值的公平行为发展得更好, 并且在两种卷入情境下受内群体偏爱的影响均更小。

关键词: 资源价值, 分配行为, 内群体偏爱, 第一方情境, 第三方情境

Abstract:

Developing fairness is an important task of children's moral development. Equality, including numerical equality and quality equality, is one of the distributive justice principles. So far, most previous studies focus on the number-based resource allocation. However, children often allocate resources of different quality in daily life, and previous studies find that resource quality plays an important role in allocation. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the development of children’s quality-based resource allocation and the related factors. Moreover, according to the evidence from numerous researches about number-based resource allocation, children’s allocation can be shaped by in-group favoritism that children allocate more resources to in-group members. Hence, whether the quality-based resource allocation can be influenced by in-group favoritism is worthy of attention. In addition, different involvement contexts (the first-party and third-party contexts), whether involving individual self-interest or not, can influence children’s resource allocation. Given the above, this study focused on the role of in-group favoritism in children’s quality-based resource allocation in the first-party and third-party contexts, as well as its age and gender differences.
Two experiments were designed to understand above questions. Experiment 1 aimed to investigate children’s quality-based resource allocation in the first-party context. 61 children aged 5- to 6-year-old and 73 children aged 7- to 8-year-old were recruited and were asked to pick out two favorite objects (high-quality resources) and two objects enjoyed least (low-quality resources) from nine different objects. Then, we instructed the children to allocate any two of the four objects to themselves and the other two to either one out-group (strangers from other school) or in-group (good friends from the same class) member. Thus, two conditions including Out-group condition and In-group condition were generated. It was considered as quality equality only if each person received one high-quality resource and one low-quality resource. As for the quality-based equal distributive behavior, the result showed that there was no age difference, furthermore, there was no significant difference between In-group condition and Out-group condition for the two age groups. As for the children who allocated unequally, the results indicated that 5- to 6-year-olds were more likely to show altruistic distributive behavior in the In-group condition compared with Out-group condition, and showed more self-regarding distributive behavior in the Out-group condition than In-group condition. Furthermore, 5- to 6-year-old girls, rather than boys, were more likely to show altruistic distributive behavior in the In-group condition compared with Out-group condition.
Experiment 2 was conducted in the third-party context to explore children’s quality-based resource allocation in the context without self-interest involvement. 64 children aged 5- to 6-year-old and 66 children aged 7- to 8-year-old were recruited and asked to allocate any two of four objects to each of two members from either in-group or out-group, generating three conditions including Out-group/out-group condition, In-group/in-group condition and In-group/out-group condition. The results showed that, on average, compared with younger children, older children were more likely to allocate equally. Besides, both of the two age groups were less likely to allocate equally in the In-group/out-group condition than in the other two conditions, but 5- to 6-year-olds allocated less equally in the In-group/out-group condition than did 7- to 8-year-olds. Furthermore, for the younger children, girls rather than boys allocated less equally in the In-group/out-group condition than in the other two conditions. Comparing the results of different involvement contexts, we found that the proportion of 7- to 8-year-old children who allocated equally in the third-party context was significantly greater than that in the first-party context.
In sum, 7- to 8-year-old children’s quality-based resource allocation was more likely to be equal in the third-party context and showed less in-group favoritism in the two contexts than that of 5- to 6-year-old children. Furthermore, 5- to 6-year-old girls were more likely to be influenced by in-group favoritism. Besides, older children demonstrated higher level of equality in the third-party than in the first-party context. The implication of this study was that children’s quality-based resource allocation could be influenced by multiple competing motives including equality, in-group favoritism and self-interest.

Key words: resource quality, resource allocation, in-group favoritism, first-party, third-party

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