ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (9): 985-996.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00985

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

快乐型和实现型情感的习惯化 *

罗扬眉1, 莫凡1,2, 陈煦海1, 蒋宏达1, 游旭群1()   

  1. 1 陕西师范大学心理学院; 陕西省行为与认知神经科学重点实验室, 西安 710062
    2 中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-28 出版日期:2018-09-15 发布日期:2018-07-27
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金青年项目(31600913);教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目西部项目(15XJC190001);中国博士后基金(2016M590918, 2017T100724);陕西省博士后面上项目(2016BSHTDZZ10);陕西省高校科协青年人才托举计划项目(20160210);陕西师范大学中央高校基本科研业务费(18SZYB03)

The habituation of hedonic and eudaimonic affect

LUO Yangmei1, MO Fan1,2, CHEN Xuhai1, JIANG Hongda1, YOU Xuqun1()   

  1. 1 School of Psychology, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Behavior and Cognitive Neuroscience, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China;
    2 Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2017-08-28 Online:2018-09-15 Published:2018-07-27

摘要:

作为时间动态性表现形式之一, 积极情感习惯化对于心理健康和幸福感有着重要意义。积极情感可分为快乐型(追求快乐和避免痛苦)和实现型(追求意义和自我实现)。以往研究大多关注快乐型情感的习惯化, 而对实现型情感鲜有研究。并且, 实现型情感习惯化是否会受到多样化的影响及其与抑郁的关系也不清楚。因此, 采用习惯化范式, 对快乐型和实现型情感的动态变化过程进行了比较。结果发现:与快乐型情感相比, 实现型情感不容易发生习惯化; 多样性能降低两类积极情感的习惯化速度; 个体的抑郁水平与实现型情感习惯化速度有关, 且神经质在其中起调节作用。这表明, 实现型情感短期习惯化可能与个体的心理健康水平有着重要联系。

关键词: 实现型情感, 快乐型情感, 习惯化, 抑郁, 神经质

Abstract:

Affect unfolds over time. Thus, it is crucial to understand the temporal dynamics of affect. Affective habituation, a form of affective temporal dynamic, refers to the psychological process by which the affective response becomes weak for repeated or continuous stimulation. Although substantial interest has been directed at delineating the affective habituation, it is still unclear that how hedonic affect (pleasure attainment and pain avoidance) and eudaimonic affect (meaning and self-realization) habituate across time. Additionally, it is unknown whether variety affects the habituation and how individual differences in the two types of affective habituation relate to people’s depression. The current study examines the process of the eudaimonic and hedonic habituation in a short time and its relation to depression.
Two experiments were designed in the current study. Experiment 1 was designed to investigate the habituation of positive and neutral affect. It was a 2 (stimulus variability: 1-stimulus vs. 4-simuli) × 2 (positive vs neutral) within-subject design. Thirty-eight participants completed the habituation paradigm, in which people assessed the affective reactions to the repeated positive and neutral pictures using a visual analog scale and their depressive states were measured. We used hierarchical linear models to model the affective habituation and its relation with depression. The results showed that positive affect is more likely to habituate than neutral affect is; variety counteracted habituation; and there is no relationship between affective habituation and depression.
From the hedonism and eudaimonism perspective, we divided positive affect into hedonic and eudaimonic affect. Experiment 2 was a 2 (variety: 1-stimulus vs. 4-simuli) × 3 (affective types: eudaimonic vs. hedonic vs. neutral) within-subject design. The procedure was almost identical to Experiment 1. Hedonic affect was defined as high pleasure but low meaning, such as the scenes depicting a person enjoying delicious food; eudaimonic affect was defined as high pleasure and high meaning, such as the scenes depicting a person helping others in need and spending time with family. The images were standardized with another sample. Seventy-one participants completed this habituation paradigm and their depressive states and neuroticism were measured after the experiment. The results showed that the hedonic affect is more likely to habituate than are eudaimonic affect and neutral affect. Variety counteracted hedonic and eudaimonic affect habituation. Their depressions were associated with rapid habituation of eudaimonic affect, but there was no such association for hedonic affect. Moreover, neuroticism moderated the relationship between the eudaimonic affect habituation and depression.
In general, evidences from the current study found that eudaimonic affect is difficult to habituate relative to hedonic affect in a short time. Variety counteracted both types of affect habituation. Furthermore, depression was associated with rapid habituation of eudaimonic affect and neuroticism could moderate this relationship. The findings may provide insight into temporal dynamics of eudaimonic affect and its implications in mental health of human beings.

Key words: hedonic affect, eudaimonic affect, habituation, depression, neuroticism

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