ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (8): 858-867.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00858

• “以小拨大:行为决策助推社会发展”专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

“长计远虑”的助推效应:怀孕与环境跨期决策 *

李爱梅1(), 王海侠1(), 孙海龙1, 熊冠星1,2, 杨韶丽1,3   

  1. 1 暨南大学管理学院, 广州 510632
    2 华南师范大学经济与管理学院, 广州 510006
    3 埃森哲(中国)有限公司广州分公司, 广州 510898);
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-01 出版日期:2018-08-07 发布日期:2018-07-02
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金面上项目(71271101);广东省自然科学基金重大培育项目(2017A030308013)

The nudge effect of “foresight for the future of our children”: Pregnancy and environmental intertemporal choice

LI Aimei1(), WANG Haixia1(), SUN Hailong1, XIONG Guanxing1,2, YANG Shaoli1,3   

  1. 1 Management School, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
    2 School of Economics and Management, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
    3 Accenture (China) Co., Ltd. Guangzhou Branch, Guangzhou 510898, China);
  • Received:2017-09-01 Online:2018-08-07 Published:2018-07-02

摘要:

如何做出有利于长期环境利益的跨期决策是一个重要的科学问题。4个研究探讨了为子孙后代的“长计远虑”对环境跨期决策的助推作用。研究1通过对比真实孕妇和未孕女性, 探讨怀孕、长计远虑水平和环境跨期决策三者之间的关系; 研究2通过启动育龄女性的怀孕状态, 进一步验证了长计远虑在怀孕与环境跨期决策中的中介作用; 研究3和4开发助推研究范式, 探讨为子孙后代的长计远虑对环保政策支持意愿和实际环保行为的影响。结果发现:不管是真实怀孕还是实验室启动怀孕, 都会提高人们的长计远虑水平, 并且在环境跨期决策中偏好远期选项; 将长计远虑作为一种助推手段, 能够在实验室和现场研究中助推环境跨期决策。这些结论对于理解怀孕的进化功能和基于“长计远虑”开发长远环保政策具有借鉴意义。

关键词: 环境跨期决策, 助推, 时间折扣率, 长计远虑, 怀孕

Abstract:

Environmental issues are currently of particular concern in the world. Thus, it is important to understand the processes that contribute to prudent long-term choices regarding the environment. To this end, it is important to study environmental intertemporal choice, especially the improvement of foresight in environmental time discounting.

The present research combined questionnaire-based, lab-based and field studies to investigate whether “Foresight for the Future of Our Children” decreased time discounting in environmental intertemporal choice. Study 1 probed the link between pregnancy and environmental intertemporal choice. Study 2 aimed to replicate the results from Study 1 by controlling for the confounding variables of the physiological state of pregnancy in a lab experiment. In Study 3, a priming paradigm was developed to test this hypothesis. Participants were instructed to indicate their degree of support for specific environmental policies after the benefits of the policy were described. The test materials were the same in the experimental and control groups with the exception that an additional phrase was included in the experimental condition: “To leave our children with blue sky, green earth, clear water, and a beautiful home”. Building on Study 3, Study 4 employed a similar nudge-like intervention to investigate the effects of “Foresight for the Future of Our Children” on the extent to which participants support a federal environmental policy and donation incentive for charitable organizations.

Study 1 indicated that pregnancy increased long-term thought in environmental intertemporal choice and decreased the temporal discounting rate through comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant participants. Moreover, long-term thinking mediated the effect of pregnancy on the discounting rate in environmental intertemporal choice. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1 regarding the links between the psychological priming of pregnancy and the discount rate in environmental intertemporal choice. The first two studies investigated whether natural pregnancy influenced the time discounting rate in environmental intertemporal choice. Based on these results, Study 3 tested the intervention hypothesis, which suggests that the subtle priming associated with the characteristics of pregnancy would influence the degree of support for long-term environmental policies. The results demonstrated that a simple prime that referred to “Foresight for the Future of Our Children” increased long-term thinking in intertemporal choice. Importantly, we produced similar nudging effects in Study 4 and showed that “Foresight for the Future of Our Children” increased the donation incentive towards a charity that aimed to improve the environment of China.

The results from our four studies provide consistent evidence that “Foresight for the Future of Our Children” decreased myopic behaviour in environmental intertemporal choice. These results are crucial for the design of nudge interventions that improve the long-term interests of both individuals and collectives while persevering the freedom of individual choice. Furthermore, this research also sheds light on the theoretical attributions to underlying intertemporal models and the effects of the physiological state of pregnancy on choice.

Key words: environmental intertemporal choice, nudge intervention, time discounting, long thought, pregnancy

中图分类号: