ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (3): 416-426.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00416

• 论文 • 上一篇    

试论布鲁纳晚年的心理学研究转向及其学术意义

霍涌泉1,3; 宋佩佩1,2; 陈小普3; 朱 熠4; 陈媛媛1   

  1. (1陕西师范大学心理学院, 西安 710061) (2陕西省行为与认知神经实验中心, 西安 710062) (3宝鸡文理学院教育学院, 宝鸡 721016) (4西安远东第一中学, 西安 710077)
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-04 出版日期:2017-03-25 发布日期:2017-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 宋佩佩, E-mail: aran22@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金西部项目(13XS023)、国家自然科学基金(31671147)项目资助。

The orientation of Bruner’s psychological research at his later age and its academic relevance

HUO Yongquan1,3; SONG Peipei1,2; CHEN Xiaopu3; ZHU Yi4; CHEN Yuanyuan1   

  1. (1 School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710061, China) (2 Behavior and Cognitive Neuroscience Experiment Center of Shaanxi Province, Xi'an 710062, China) (3 Teacher’s College, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Baoji 721016, China) (4 Xi'an Far East No.1 Middle School, Xi'an 710077, China)
  • Received:2015-12-04 Online:2017-03-25 Published:2017-03-25
  • Contact: SONG Peipei, E-mail: aran22@sina.com

摘要:

布鲁纳是当代极具开放心态及创新精神的著名心理学家、教育家和学术长青树。早在20世纪50年代, 他就是第一次认知革命的开拓者与奠基者之一。进入20世纪90年代以来, 布鲁纳的学术思想出现了明显的转向, 在认知心理学、文化心理学和理论心理学领域取得了新的成就。晚年的布鲁纳不断重新反思认知心理学的发展道路, 强调认知的本质基础应是意义建构, 有力地促进了第二次认知革命的深入发展; 重视文化传递对人类心理、智力发展的作用, 为文化心理学的发展奠定了新的理论基础; 积极反思当代心理学的困境, 寻找促成心理学整合的主要理论问题。布鲁纳对当今心理学发展的时代性主题及核心问题的阐述以及未来研究的定位, 无疑提出了值得令人关注的取向及参照线索。

关键词: 布鲁纳, 认知革命, 意义建构, 文化心理学, 理论心理学

Abstract:

Bruner is one of the most creative and open-minded psychologists and educationists in the world. Moreover, he is also one of the leading figures in the first and the second cognitive revolution. Since 1990s, Bruner’s research showed a distinctive change in the academic orientation, which had made a significant contribution to cognitive psychology, cultural psychology, anthropology as well as theoretical psychology. His excellent achievements at his later years involved various fields including psychology, education, anthropology and law. Through plenty of researches and observations, Bruner finally realized that human behavior was always affected by the involved culture. His work helped to keep the field of psychology away from strict behaviorism, and made contribution to the development of cognitive and cultural psychology. Many scholars emphasized the orientation of Bruner’s thoughts at his later age. This article seeks to reflect the important value of Bruner’s academic achievements at his later age, and reveal his reflection on cognitive revolution and theoretical framework of cultural psychology. Bruner promoted the gain momentum of second cognitive revolution, which echoed the global development of psychology. He also reflected on the development of cognitive psychology, suggesting that cognition could be seen as individual’s activity in real life. Bruner established the foundation of cognitive psychology by applying a constructivist theory. Meanwhile, he developed a new framework for cultural psychology by emphasizing the importance of cultural transmission in the development of human mind and its general intelligence. In this framework, Bruner explained that human mind reflected the evolution of biological, cultural construction and exposure to the practice of interaction among biological, cultural and practical properties, which acted like an integrated complex process. Furthermore, Bruner made great effort in unravelling the plight of empirical approach and in exploring the way to psychology integration. His innovative understanding of problems in psychology and foresights for future studies also served as an important guide for the field of interest. Bruner attributed his success to the openness of the eyes. As a people who was born blind and restored sight later, these experiences made him sensitive to the new. The secret of people fascinating him throughout his life, his spirit always inspire future researchers continue to complete his unfinished work.

Key words: Bruner, cognitive revolution, meaning construction, cultural psychology, theoretical psychology