ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (2): 199-210.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00199

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

自爱与他爱:自恋、共情与内隐利他的关系

何宁;朱云莉   

  1. (陕西师范大学心理学院, 西安 710062)
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-27 出版日期:2016-02-25 发布日期:2016-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 何宁, E-mail: hening@snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    教育部人文社科规划基金项目(15XJA190001)和陕西省社科基金项目(13NO39)。

Self-love and other-love: Research on the relationships among narcissism, empathy and implicit altruism

HE Ning; ZHU Yunli   

  1. (Psychology School, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China)
  • Received:2015-05-27 Online:2016-02-25 Published:2016-02-25
  • Contact: HE Ning, E-mail: hening@snnu.edu.cn

摘要:

自恋者具有低共情的人格特征, 而共情是引发利他行为的重要动力。本文通过两个实验研究试图揭示不同情境下, 自恋对共情与内隐利他的影响。结果表明:(1)自恋组与非自恋组被试均存在内隐利他倾向, 且自恋组的内隐利他倾向显著低于非自恋组; (2)自恋组的共情能力显著低于非自恋组, 其中, 自恋组在情绪共情上显著低于非自恋组被试, 两组在认知共情上差异不显著; (3)共情诱发对自恋组被试的共情与内隐利他均有显著影响。启动条件下自恋组被试的共情水平与内隐利他倾向显著高于控制条件下自恋组被试, 且达到与非自恋组被试相同的水平, 而非自恋组被试的共情与内隐利他倾向在两种实验条件下差异不显著; (4)共情诱发显著提高了自恋组被试的情感而非认知共情水平。

关键词: 自恋, 共情, 内隐利他, 内隐联想测验

Abstract:

Narcissism (narcissistic personality disorder or narcissistic personality trait) has long been characterized in the clinical and nonclinical literature by a lack of empathy. Although a large body of empirical studies link empathy to altruism as the trigger for prosocial behaviors, few studies have directly explored the relationships among narcissism, empathy and altruism. Here, we present two experiments that examined the relationships among these three dimensions and provide insights into the narcissists’ state empathy and its association with their altruistic tendencies.
The total sample comprised 173 undergraduates divided into two groups, narcissists and non-narcissists, based on their responses to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Adopting split-half methods, participants scoring above the average were identified as narcissists and those below as non-narcissists. In study 1, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index–C and the Implicit Association Test were applied to compare the two groups on measures of empathy and implicit altruism. Narcissists were hypothesized to demonstrate lower levels of empathy and weaker tendencies of implicit altruism compared to non-narcissists. In study 2, a video was employed to investigate state empathy and its connection to implicit altruism. A 2 (narcissism: narcissists vs. non-narcissists) × 2 (experimental treatment: priming vs. control) design was applied, with participants randomly assigned into the two experimental conditions. The second hypothesis was that the priming of empathy would increase the empathy and implicit altruism of narcissists, whereas non-narcissists would be unaffected.
In Study 1, narcissists demonstrated lower levels of emotional (but not cognitive) empathy, and of implicit altruism, compared to their non-narcissistic counterparts. In Study 2, a significantly higher level of state empathy and implicit altruism among narcissists emerged after priming compared to the control group, suggesting that narcissists are able to produce emotionally appropriate responses to others when primed. Further, ANOVA analyses revealed that the elevation of emotional empathy elicited through priming contributed to the enhancement of overall empathy for narcissists. Conversely, non-narcissists were unaffected by the priming.

This is the first empirical study to test the narcissism–empathy relationship hypothesis proposed by Stone (1998), who argued that there could be separable aspects of ability and willingness that affect narcissistic individuals’ empathic functioning. Some narcissistic individuals may have intact empathic ability, but choose to disengage from others’ pain or distress. These findings extend the empirical evidence of empathy and altruism in terms of individual differences, and contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying prosocial behavior among narcissists. Narcissism is essentially emotional and motivational in nature, and emotionally based priming appears to bear particularly strong promise for increasing altruistic behaviors among narcissists. The results suggest possible pathways to practical improvement in the lack of empathy among narcissistic individuals.

Key words: narcissism, empathy, implicit altruism, Implicit Association Test