ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 721-735.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00721

• 心理学史 • 上一篇    下一篇


张凯丽, 郑红, 汪凤炎()   

  1. 南京师范大学道德教育研究所, 南京师范大学心理学院, 南京 210097
  • 收稿日期:2022-12-11 出版日期:2023-05-15 发布日期:2023-02-13
  • 通讯作者: 汪凤炎
  • 基金资助:

“One prelude” and “two movements”: A portrayal of the research process of wisdom psychology in the past 50 years

ZHANG Kaili, ZHENG Hong, WANG Fengyan()   

  1. Institute of Moral Education, Nanjing Normal University; School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University; Nanjing 210097, China
  • Received:2022-12-11 Online:2023-05-15 Published:2023-02-13
  • Contact: WANG Fengyan


为了更好地继往开来, 首次将智慧心理学近50年的研究历史分为“一个序曲”和“两个阶段”。其中, Clayton用实证法研究智慧心理的序曲, 开始时间至迟不晚于1976年, 戛然而止于1982年, 其特点是“昙花一现”。智慧心理学研究的第一阶段, 时间始自20世纪80年代早期, 延续至21世纪初, 其特点是“柏林智慧模式一花独秀, 新皮亚杰主义智慧观和智慧的平衡理论作为两片绿叶相衬托”。智慧心理学研究的第二阶段, 时间始自2004年, 延续至现在, 其特点是“百花齐放”, 它主要体现在两方面:一是智慧被视为比知识更重要的东西, 出现了更多不同的智慧理论和测量智慧工具; 二是兴起了多个研究热点, 进一步拓宽了智慧心理学的研究领域。回顾智慧心理学近50年的研究历程, 可以得到两个结论:一是, 近50年来, 对智慧心理学的研究经历了一个从自发到自觉、从分散到有组织、从零星探讨到系统研究的发展过程; 二是, 研究对象从智慧者的特征到智慧特征, 再到智慧者的特征, 再到结合智慧者的特征和智慧特征来研究智慧, 经历了一个螺旋上升的过程。展望未来, 宜在两个方面推进智慧心理学的研究:一是, 须尽快开发研究智慧的成熟实验范式, 并揭示智慧的脑机制; 二是, 须积极开展智慧的应用研究。

关键词: 内隐三维智慧观, 柏林智慧模式, 新皮亚杰主义智慧观, 智慧的平衡理论, 外显三维智慧模型


The psychological study of wisdom is becoming more and more widespread. To better carry forward the past and usher in the future, the research history of wisdom psychology in the past 50 years is comprehensively reviewed, critically drawing on the work of Sternberg and Glück. The symphony of the development of wisdom psychology consists of “one prelude” and “two movements”. Specifically, “one prelude” refers to Vivian Clayton’s wisdom research, which started no later than 1976 and ended abruptly in 1982, when Clayton left academia. Clayton elevated the concept of wisdom to scientific status for the first time, paving the way for empirical research on wisdom psychology. The brief period of Clayton’s academic career devoted to the study of wisdom psychology ignited the enthusiasm of scholars for research on wisdom psychology. The “two movements” are “one flower blooming with two buds” and “all flowers bloom together”. The first stage of wisdom psychology, begun in the early 1980s, was characterized by the leading position of the Berlin wisdom model, which shed light on an expert knowledge system dealing with the fundamental pragmatics of life, as well as neo-Piagetian theory and the balance theory of wisdom by Robert J. Sternberg. At that time, the uniqueness and importance of wisdom were uncovered, and these three theories together formed a solid theoretical foundation for the future development of wisdom psychology. The second stage of wisdom psychology began with Monika Ardelt’s critical review of the Berlin group’s definition, operationalization, and particular measurement of wisdom in 2004 and has continued to this day. It is characterized by vigorous development in the field of wisdom psychology and fruitful results, mainly demonstrated by two aspects. First, wisdom was treated as more important than knowledge. Accordingly, a variety of theories and measurements of wisdom were presented, promoting the development of wisdom research, such as the explicit three-dimensional wisdom model (3D-WM), the H.E.R.O.(E.) model of wisdom, wisdom as self-transcendence, and the two-dimensional theory of wisdom that integrates virtue and wit. Second, a wide array of research hotspots of wisdom emerged, which further deepened and broadened the field of wisdom psychology. To elaborate, research of wisdom psychology nowadays focuses on the controversies and resolutions of wisdom connotations, wise reasoning, the relationship between wisdom and self, wisdom education, and so forth. In reviewing the research history of wisdom psychology over the past half-century, two conclusions can be drawn. First, the study of wisdom psychology has evolved from spontaneity to consciousness, from dispersion to organization, and from sporadic discussion to systematic research. Second, the research object of wisdom has gone through an alternate spiral change process that from characteristics of the wise person to characteristics of wisdom per se, and back to characteristics of the wise person, until finally, integration of the two. Furthermore, future research on wisdom psychology should be promoted in two areas. One aspect is to develop a maturely experimental paradigm for studying wisdom directly and revealing its brain mechanism. The other is to pay more attention to the study of applying wisdom to real-life situations.

Key words: implicit three-dimensional wisdom view, Berlin wisdom model, neo-Piagetian theory, the balance theory of wisdom, explicit three-dimensional wisdom model